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CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNING

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNING

H.S. SRIVASTAVA

Year : 2017

Bibliography :

296pp

ISBN : 9789386262318(HB), Price : $75.00 Add To Cart

ISBN : 9789386262325(PB), Price : $25.00Add To Cart

About the Book

Curriculum and Instructional Designing is a book which effortlessly enables the educational practitioners to travel from the nebulous theoretical postulates of curriculum to the ground realities of their implementation. It deliberately endeavours to avoid jargons by presenting their meanings and implications with examples from life. This is likely help not just in learning concepts but in internalising them with a sense of gratification.

Covering Objectives in all the three domain of human development, content inits diverse manifestations, methodology in both conventional and unconventional facets, support material in its various forms and formats and Educational Evaluation as an empowered instrument for fulfilling its obligations, the book,it is hoped,should become an arm-pit companion of teachers at the university and school levels and of specialised institutes run by the corporate bodies. The teachers and students of teacher training institutions may also find the book of special value in learning terse concepts in simple ways. 

About Author

Prof. H.S. Srivastava, an Educational Reformer and former Dean, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi, studied at Universities of Agra, Delhi, Patna, of Chicago and Stockholm and as a student of Benjamin Bloom, Torsten Heusen, Helen Walker and John I Goodlad, he carries their stamp and legacy.

Working at the NCERT, New Delhi as also at the UNESCO Institute for Education HAMBURG, International Institute for Educational Planning PARIS, University of Sussex, BRIGHTON,University of Shanghai,SHANGHAI he made valuable contributions.

One of his books, Examination Reforms in India was published by the UNESCO in 1978 in English, French and Spanish.

Prof. Srivastava has also been decorated by the Government of France, with the title of Chevalier dansI’Ordre des PalmesAcademiques for his service and contribution to education.


Contents

Preface                                                                                                                        v

Section I

Foundations of Instructional Designing

1.     Education in the 21st Century—Learning the Treasure Within
(Report of UNESCO’s International Commission on Education)

1.1    Introduction

1.2    Education: The Necessary Utopia

1.3    Directions to Move Towards

2.     Our Changing Environment and Ethos

2.1    The Over-riding Concept of Change

2.2    Life-long Education

2.3    Knowledge v/s Competence

2.4    Holistic Development

2.5    Distance Education

2.6    Demystifying Technology

2.7    Comprehensive Evaluation of Educational Gains

2.8    Vision About Learners

3.     An Overview of a Futuristic Perspectives of Education

3.1    The Changed Purpose of Education

3.2    New Directions in the Content of Education

3.3    Curriculum Transaction

3.4    Learning Materials and Aids

3.5    Evaluation of Learner Growth

3.6    Globalisation of Indian Education

3.7    Let Us Continue To Be Givers

3.8    National Goals

3.9    Aims of Education

4.     Curriculum: The Anvil of Instructional Designs

4.1    Introduction

4.2    Basic Considerations

4.3    Derivation and Statement of Objectives

4.4    Curriculum Development a Collaborative Venture

4.5    The Types of Educational Curricula

4.6    Developing Curriculum Content and Materials

4.7    Developing Evaluation Procedures and Materials

4.8    Curriculum Transaction Implementation

4.9    Curriculum Evaluation

4.10  Conclusion

5.     Generic Facets of Educational Objectives

5.1    The Purpose of Objectives

5.2    A Snag in the Classification of Objectives

5.3    The Eight-year Study Model

5.4    The Sources of Educational Objectives

5.5    The Levels of Educational Objectives

5.6    The Statements of Educational Objectives

5.7    The Definition of Objectives

5.8    Taxonomies of Educational Objectives

5.9    Objectives of the Cognitive Domain (Bloom’s Model)

5.10  Some Other Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain

5.11  Objectives of the Affective Domain—Krathwohl’s Model

5.12  Objectives of the Psycho-motor Domain (Dave’s Model)

5.13  Interrelationship of  Different Domains of Objectives

5.14  Some Examples of Manifestations of Different Areas of Growth

5.15  The Author’s Contribution to the Taxonomies

5.16  Taxonomy of Instuctional objectives of language and literature (H.S. Srivastava’s Model)

5.17  Salient Manifestations of the Objectives

Section II

The Learning and Teaching Process

6.     The Process of Learning

6.1    A Macro Overview

6.2    Principles of Learning

6.3    Motivation in Learning

6.4    Maturation and Learning

6.5    Conditioned Learning

6.6    Trial and Error

6.7    Insightful Learning

6.8    Learning by Imitation

6.9    Remembering and Forgetting

6.10  Transfer of Training

6.11  Optimising Learning

7.     Energising Instruction

7.1    The Fundamental Foundations

7.2    Principles of Objective-Based Instruction

7.3    Instructional Approaches

7.4    Planning Enriched Objective-Based Instruction

7.5    Nature and Purpose of Instructional Material

7.6    A Suggestive Format of an Instructional Unit

7.7    Conclusion

7.9    Objective-based Instruction: A Diagramatic Representation

8.     The Concept of ‘Prep Index’—An Approach for Quantifying Qualitative Outcomes of Education (Example: Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness)

8.1    The Need

8.2    Scope of Evaluation of Educational Practices

8.3    Purpose of Evaluating Educational Practices

8.4    Methodology of Evaluating Educational Practices

8.5    PREP Index and its Derivation

8.6    Use of Evaluation Data

8.7    Conclusion

8.8    Methodology of Evaluating Educational Practices—Graphical Presentation of Steps

9.     Determining and Designing Course Contents

9.1    Steps in the Development of Course Contents

9.2    Manifestation of Course Content

9.3    Instructional Considerations for Detailing Contents

9.4    Treatment of Different Aspects of Content

9.5    Salient Features of Course Content

9.6    Distance Education – A Gap-Filling Mode

9.7    Warding Off Conceptual Confusions

10.  Some Insights into Curriculum Transaction

10.1  A Operational Definition of Education

10.2  Challenges of Education

10.3  Vocational Facet of Education

10.4  Types of Interaction in Teaching and Learning

10.5  Life Management Skills

10.6  Goals of Instructional Methodologies

11.  Using Questions for Teaching [Some Examples Related to
School Education]

11.1  Introduction

11.2  English

11.3  Physics

11.4  Chemistry

11.5  Biology

11.6  History

11.7  Geography

Section III

Some Conventional Instructional Methodologies

Introduction

12.  The Lecture Method

12.1  Lecture Preparation

12.2  Lecture Presentation/Delivery

13.  The Discussion Method

13.1  Purposes Served by Discussions

13.2  Teacher’s/Leader’s Role

13.3  The Process of Discussions

13.4  Pre-requisites for Effective Discussions

14.  Demonstration

14.1  Introduction

14.2  Demonstration as a Teaching Device

14.3  Preparation for Demonstration

14.4  Pre-requisites for Demonstration

14.5  Limitations of the Demonstration Method

15.  Observation

15.1  Preparation for Making Observations

15.2  Process of Observation

15.3  Observation of Individuals

16.  Problem-Solving Method

16.1  Characteristics of a ‘Problem’

16.2  Approaches to Problem Solving

16.3  Steps of the Problem Solving Method

16.4  Problem Solving and Project Method

16.5  Merits and Limitations of Problem Solving Method

17.  The Herbartian Steps

17.1  Historical Overview

17.2  The Originally Proposed Steps

17.3  The Subsequent Adaptations

17.4  Conclusion

Section IV

Some Unconventional Instructional Methodologies

Introduction

18.  The Project Method

18.1  Types of Projects

18.2  Principles Involved in the Project Method

18.3  Steps in the Project Method

18.4  Shortcomings of the Project Method

18.5  Conclusion

19.  The Laboratory Method

19.1  Learning by Doing

19.2  Support Material for Laboratory Work

19.3  Types of Laboratory Methods

19.4  Process of Laboratory Work

19.5  Post Experiment Discussion

20.  Programmed Instruction

20.1  The Purpose of Programmed Instruction

20.2  The Structure of Programmed Instruction

20.3  The Operations of Programmed Instruction

20.4  Conclusion

21.  Think-Tank Sessions

21.1  Connotation

21.2  Requirements

21.3  Physical Arrangements

21.4  Purpose

21.5  The Process

21.6  Expected Gains

22.  Seminars

22.1  Connotation

22.2  Requirements

22.3  Physical Arrangements

22.4  Operational Steps

22.5  Process

22.6  Expected Gains

23.  Panel Discussions

23.1  Connotation

23.2  Physical Arrangements

23.3  Requirements

23.4  Process

23.5  Expected Gains

24.  Symposium

24.1  Connotation

24.2  Physical Arrangement

24.3  Requirements

24.4  Process

24.5  Gains

25.  Library Research

25.1  Connotation

25.2  Requirements

25.3  Process

25.4  Expected Gains

26.  Photo Language Session

26.1  Connotation

26.2  Requirements

26.3  Process

26.4  The Gains

27.  Surveys

21.1  Connotation

27.2  Requirements

27.3  Physical (Seating) Arrangement

27.4  Process

27.5  Gains

28.  Participatory/Group Learning

28.1  Introduction

28.2  The Genesis of Participatory Learning

28.3  Prerequisites of the Approach of Participatory Learning

28.4  The Process of Participatory Learning

28.5  Conclusion

29.  Action Research

29.1  The Concept

29.2  Designing of Steps

29.3  Operation of Action Research

Section V

Ict in Instructional Designing

30.  ICT in Instructional Designing and Curriculum Implementation

30.1  Introduction

30.2  Evolution of Computers

30.3  Computer Aided Instruction

30.4  Strategies of CAI

30.5  Purposes Served of by CAI

30.6  Components of CAI

30.7  Salient Attributes of CAI

30.8  Programmed Instruction

30.9  The Garbs of CAI

30.10                                                                                          Dividends of CAI

Section VI

Some Ancillary Teaching-Learning Facets/Situations

31.  Assignments and Work at Home

31.1  Assignments for Consolidation of Learning Exercises

31.2  Characteristics of Assignments

31.3  Steps in Assignments

31.4  Work at Home

32.  Organisation of Exhibitions

32.1  Introduction

32.2  Basic Principles of Organising Exhibitions

32.3  Characteristics of Exhibits

33.  Educational Field Trips and Excursions

33.1  Introduction

33.2  Purpose of Organising Field Trips

33.3  Organisational Steps

33.4  Post-Trip Exercises

Section VII

Instructional Aids and Support Material

34.  Instructional Aids and Support Material

34.1  The Genesis of Instructional Material and Aids

34.2  Utilisation of all Senses for Learning Arise

34.3  Purpose of Instructional Aids

34.4  Types of Teaching Aids

34.5  Situations for the Use of Instructional Aids

35.  Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience

Section VIII

Evaluating Learning Outcomes

36.  The Meaning of Educational Evaluation

36.1  Examinations and Evaluation

36.2  An operational explanation of Evaluation

37.  Purpose of Evaluation

37.1  Some Important Purposes of Educational Evaluation

37.2  Selection Tests

37.3  Class Promotions in Institutions

37.4  Promotion in Jobs

38.  Evaluation of Attainments in Abilities and Proficiencies

39.  Preparing of Objective-based Questions of Different Forms

39.1  Characteristics of Good Questions

39.2  Forms of Objective-Based Questions

39.3  Preparing Long Answer or Essay Type Questions

39.4  Preparing Short Answer Type of Questions

39.5  Preparing Very Short Answer Type Questions

39.6  Preparing Objective Type (Multiple Choice) Questions

40.  Written Examinations — Preparation of Balanced Question
Papers

40.1  The Backdrop

40.2  Shortcomings of Traditional Question Papers and their Remediation

40.3  Steps of the Action Plan

40.4  Format of a Design of A Question Paper/Test

41.  Oral and Practical Examinations

41.1  Oral Tests

41.2  Conducting Science Practical Examinations

41.3  Development of a New Pattern

41.4  Implementation of the Scheme

42.  Grading Learner’s Performance

42.1  Emergence of the IDEA of Grading in India

42.2  Why Grading?

42.3  Grading and Concept of Pass and Fail and Award of Divisions

42.4  Methods of Awarding Grades

42.5  Grading in Institutional Examinations

Section IX

Curriculum Evaluation

43.  Curriculum Evaluation

43.1  Preamble

43.2  Evaluation of Curriculum Components

43.3  Evaluation of Curriculum at Different Stages/Steps of Curriculum Development

43.4  Steps of Procedure of Curriculum Evaluation

43.5  Use of Prep Index in Curriculum Evaluation

Appendix 1: Some Explanatory Definitions of Curriculum

References

Index

Additional Info.

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