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Year: 2013


xv+319 pp (2nd Ed. in 2008), 2013 impression

ISBN: 9788175416963(HB)

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ISBN: 9788175416970(PB)

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About the Book

This is one of the few books dealing exclusively with Secondary education. It provides an extensive as well as an in-depth analysis of all important issues and problems relating to secondary education. The period covered in this book is since 1813 however focus is on the contemporary period. The volume is organized on three themes namely Development of Secondary Education in India Issues and Problems and School Management and it takes note of financial aspect also.
It highlights the often forgotten element that secondary education is the terminal stage for the majority of the population in India and as such it should receive priority over other stages of education.
The book may be an essential reading for a wide range of potential readers having interest in the subject.

About Author

J.C. Aggarwal is a former Deputy Director of Education and Executive Director of the Delhi Bureau of Textbooks Delhi Administration Delhi. He worked at the grassroots level as a Post-graduate teacher principal plan evaluation officer and educational supervisor and administrator. He also taught in a Post-graduate Teacher Training College. He is widely traveled and has written extensively on education and contemporary issues.

S Gupta is Post Graduate from Delhi University Delhi and has been associated with teaching for the last twenty years. She has widely travelled and participated in several school programmes. She has authored a book entitled Education in Emerging India and co-authored three books.




1. Nomenclature of Secondary Education and the Characteristics of Learners at this Stage    
1.1 Nomenclature of Secondary Education/School-World Overview
1.2 Nomenclature of Secondary Education/Secondary School in India
1.3 Characteristics of the Secondary Stage
1.4 Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Committee 2004-2005 on the Characteristics of Secondary Education

2. Significant Developments in Secondary Education in India During the Pre-Independence Period
2.1 Important Documents and Policy Decisions Having Bearing on Secondary Education
2.2 Charter Act of 18 I3
2.3 Macaulay's Minute of 1835: Macaulay as the Architect of the British System of Education in India
2.4 Lord William Bentinck's Resolution (March 7, 1835)
2.5 Formulation of the Education Policy in India
2.6 Lord Harding's Proclamation (1844)
2.7 The Despatch of 1854 and It Impact on Secondary Education
2.8 The Hunter Commission (1882) and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.9 The University Commission of 1902 and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.10 National Education Movement and National Council of Education (1906)
2.11 The Calcutta University Commission or the Sadler Commission of 1917 and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.12 The Hartog committee 1929 and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2. I3 The Sapru Committee of 1934 and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.14 The Abbot-Wood Report (1936-37) and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.15 The Sargent Report 1944 and Its Impact on Secondary Education
2.16 Expansion of Secondary Education
2.17 An Overview of the System of Secondary Education in India During the British Period

3. Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
3.1Pattern of Education Including Secondary Education as It Existed at the Time of the Appointment of the Secondary Education Commission
3.2 Background to the Appointment of the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
3.3 Appointment of the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
3.4 Terms of Reference
3.5 Functioning of the Commission
3.6 Major Recommendations of the Commission
3.7 Evaluation of the Report and Its Impact
3.8 Impact of the Report of the Secondary Education Commission
3.9 Secondary Education Commission on the Construction of the Curriculum at the Higher Secondary Stage
3.10 Secondary Education Commission on Different Types of Secondary Schools Including Multipurpose Schools

4. Indian Education Commission or Kothari Commission (196466) on Secondary Education
4.1 Background of the Appointment of the Education Commission
4.2 Composition of the Kothari Commission
4.3 Terms of Reference
4.4 Essence of the Report -Needed Educational Revolution
4.5 Important Issues in Secondary Education (Classes VIII-XII)
4.6 National Structure of Education-Proposed by Kothari Commission
4.7 Education Commission on Curriculum Reform
4.8 Religious Education and Secular Education
4.9 Education Commission and Teachers
4.10 Common School System
4.11 Equalisation of Opportunities
4.12 Vocationalisation at the Higher Secondary Stage
4.13 Implementation of the Recommendations of the Education Commission

5. NPE (1986), Ramamurti Committee (1990-91) and Programme of Action (1992)    
5.1 Secondary Education and National Policy on Education (1986)
5.2 Need for the Formulation of NPE (1986)
5.3 Process for the Formation of the NPE
5.4 Salient Features of NPE
5.5 NPE on Secondary Education
5.6 Pace-Setting Schools
5.7 Vocationalisation
5.8 Reorienting the Content and Process of Education (Part 8)
5.9 National Policy on Education, 1986: Programme of Action (POA) (1986)
5.10 Evaluation and Observations on NPE 1986 and Programme of Action 1986
5.11 Committee for Review or Ramamurti Committee on National Policy on Education, 1986
5.12 Observations on the Report
5.13 Revised National Policy on Education (1992)
5.14 NPE and Programme of Action 1992
5.15 Observations and Implementation of the Programme of Action

6. Constitutional Obligations Related to Education (With Special Reference to Secondary Education)
6.1 Education in the Concurrent List
6.2 Various Constitutional Provisions Relating to Education
6.3 Educational Administration at the National Level
6.4 A Meaningful Partnership
6.5 Constitutional Provisions and Designed Changes in Secondary Education


7. General Aims of Secondary Education
7.1 Significance of Secondary Education and Needs of India
7.2 Secondary Education Commission on Aims of Secondary Education in India
7.3 Aims of Secondary Education arid Education Commission (1964-    6)
7.4 Aims of Secondary Education According to Ishwar Bhai Patel     ommittee (1977)
7.5 Aims of Secondary Education as Stipulated in the National     ommittee on Higher Secondary Education or +2 Committee or Adiseshiah Committee (1977-78)
7.6 Aims of Secondary Education According to NPE, 1986
7.7 Aims as Formulated by the International Commission for the     wenty-First Century (1993-96)
7.8 Aims of Secondary Education in Behavioural or Functional or Operational Terms
7.9 Broad Aims of Education Including Secondary Education as Visualised in the National Curriculum Framework 2005 (NCERT)
7.10 Summing Up the Aims of Secondary Education

8. Quality of Secondary Education
8.1 Meaning of Quality in Secondary Education
8.2 Quality of Secondary Education in Terms of Aims
8.3 Improving the Quality of Secondary Education

9.Qualitative Expansion and Universalisation of Secondary Education: Financing in India
9.1 Reasons for Expansion of Secondary Education
9.2 Observations and Recommendations of the CABE Committee on Universalisation of Secondary Education (2004-05)
9.3 Financial Projections

10. Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century
10.1 UNESCO International Expert Meeting (2001)
10.2 Executive Summary of the Consensus of the UNESCO International Expert Meeting
10.3 General and Selective (Vocational) Education
10.4 Cognitive and Behavioural Outcomes
10.5 Other themes identified by the meeting that Secondary Education is, or will be, facing in achieving its new objectives and functions included:
10.6 Resources and/or Strategies Needed to Respond to the New Objectives and Functions of Secondary Education and to Manage the Themes or Dilemmas

11. Secondary Education Curriculum
11.1 Curriculum Construction Framework
11.2 Mechanism of Curriculum Development in India
11.3 Brief History of Curriculum Reforms in India
11.4 National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Education (1988)
11.5 NCERT 'National Curriculum Framework for School Education' (2000)
11.6 National Curriculum Framework (2005)
11.7 Evaluation of the National Curriculum Framework for School Education
11.8 CBSE Scheme of Studies

12. Methods of Teaching
12.1 Need for Dynamic Methods of Teaching
12.2 Meaning of Teaching Method
12.3 Objectives and Characteristics of Good Methods of Teaching
12.4 Classification of Methods of Teaching
12.5 Brief Description of Methods of Teaching
12.6 Important Methods of Teaching
12.7 Relative Merits and Limitations of Teaching Methods
12.8 Inductive and Deductive Methods of Teaching
12.9 Analytical-Synthetic Method
12.10 Problem solving Method of Teaching

13. Human and Physical Resources
13.1 Concept and Meaning of Human and Physical Resources
13.2 Human Resources
13.3 Norms for Post Fixation
13.4 Norms for Human and Physical Resources for Secondary School (Classes IX and X) Recommended by Central Advisory Board of Education Committee (CABE Committee), Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India (2004-2005)
13.5 School Plant
13.6 Selection of School Site or Place
13.7 Higher Secondary School Buildings: Area Requirements for Different Rooms/Purposes
13.8 Types of Building Design of School (Generally Applicable to a Government school)
13.9 Secondary School Laboratories
13.10 The Playground as the Uncovered School
13.11 National Policies on Education (1986 1992): School Infrastructure

14. Administration of Secondary Education
14.1 Vital Role of the State Government in Secondary Education
14.2 State Level Educational Bodies in the Field of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education or Relating to Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools
14.3 School Boards of Education
14.4 State Council of Educational Research and Training
14.5 Administration of the School and Education Code
14.6 The Head of the Secondary School
14.7 Important Management Roles
14.8 Duties and Responsibilities of the Head of the School
14.9 Delegation of Authority/Power
14.10 Accountability in School Education: Importance, Need and Meaning

15. Evaluation
15.1 Meaning of Evaluation
15.2 Triangle of Objectives, Learning Experience and Evaluation
15.3 Purposes of Evaluation
15.4 Total Scheme of Comprehensive Evaluation
15.5 Evaluation Devices or Tools
15.6 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CEE)
15.7 Main Types of Evaluation
15.8 Summative Evaluation
15.9 Formative Evaluation
15.10 Criterion-Referenced Test or Criterion Reference Evaluation
15.11 Norm-Referenced Test (NRT) or Nonn-Referenced Evaluation
15.12 Diagnostic Evaluation
15.13 Traditional System of External and Internal Examinations
15.14 Reforms in the System of Examinations
15.15 Design of the Question Papers (Secondary/Senior Secondary)
15.16 Grading Scheme of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE, Delhi)
15.17 Cumulative Record Card
15.18 Characteristics of a Cumulative Record

16. Vocationalisation of Education'at the Secondary Level
16.1 Meaning of Vocationalisation of Education
16.2 Need for Vocational Education at the Secondary Stage
16.3 Major Steps Taken in Vocationalisation of Education
16.4 Targets Set and Achieved in NPE, 1986 and 1992
16.5 Slow Progress and Problems of Vocationalisation
16.6 Suggestions for Accelerating Vocationalisation of Secondary Education

17. Distance Education and Open Learning
17.1 Nomenclature of Distance Education and Learning
17.2 Meaning of Distance Education
17.3 Correspondence Education, Open Learning, Formal Education and Distance Education
17.4 Chief Characteristics of Distance Education
17.5 Main Objectives of Distance Education
17.6 Merits and Limitations of Distance Education
17.7 Brief History of Distance Education in India
17.8 Distance System of Education at Work
17.9 National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
17.10 Objectives
17.11 Courses Offered
17.12 Examination System
17.13 Public Examination/Scheme of Examination

18. Teacher Education at Secondary Level: Pre-Service and In-Service
18.1 Meaning of Teacher Education
18.2 Need and Significance of Teacher Education
18.3 Objectives of Secondary Teacher Education and Higher Secondary Teacher Education
18.4 Types of Teacher Education and Institutions
18.5 State of Teacher Education in India: Shortcomings
18.6 Revitalising and Modernisation of Pre-Service Teacher Education
18.7 In-Service Education of Teachers
18.8 National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)


19. Moral Education
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Need for Moral Education
19.3 Definition and Meaning of Moral Values
19.4 Development of Moral Values
19.5 Moral-oriented Thoughts from Religious Scriptures
19.6 Illustrative List of Programmes and Moral Values Inculcation
19.7 Role of the Teacher in the Promotion of Moral Values Among Students
19.8 Summing Up

20. Women's Education
20.1 Importance of Women's Education
20.2 Progress of Women's Education in India
20.3 Wide Gap Between Girls' Education and Boys' Education
20.4 Measures for the Promotion of Girls' and women Education
20.5 Committees and Commissions on Women's Education
20.6 Differentiation of Curricula for Boys and Girls
20.7 Co-Education at the Secondary Stage
20.8 Empowerment of Women: Equality and Education
20.9 NPE and Education of Girls

21. Study of Secondary Education System in USA, UK, Germany and Japan
21.1 Secondary Education System in USA
21.2 Secondary School as the Key Stone
20.3 Objectives of Secondary Education
21.4 Salient Features of Secondary Education
21.5 Curriculum
21.6 Beyond the Curriculum
21.7 Vocational Education
21.8 Problems at the Secondary Stage of Education in the USA
21.9 Secondary Education System in the UK
21.10 Secondary Education in England and Wales: Chief Features
21.11 Grammar Schools
21.12 Secondary Education in Germany
21.13 Secondary Education in Japan
21.14 Comprehensive Schools
21.l5 Public Schools


22. Concept of School Management: Characteristics and Scope
22.1 Meaning of the Concept School Management
22.2 Characteristics of School Management
22.3 Objectives of School Management
22.4 Main Function of School Management
22.5 Scope of School Management: 5 M's
22.6 School Management Process
22.7 Principles of Efficient School Management
22.8 Flexibility and Not Rigidity in School Management: Management Good Servant but a Bad Master
22.9 Changing Concept, Functions and Scope of School Management: Factors Affecting School Management
22.10 Autocratic and Democratic School Management
22.11 Chief characteristics of a Well Managed School

23. Management of Human and Material Resources: Role of the Head of the School
23.1 The Authoritarian Manager and the Democratic Manager
23.2 Concept of Human-Oriented Management and Leadership
23.3 The Head of the School and Human Relations Including Relations with the Staff
23.4 Staff Meetings
23.5 Managing Human Relations with Students Parents and the Community
23.6 Significance of Each Letter of the word 'Headmaster': Qualities of the Head of the school
23.7 Managing Material Resources
23.8 Meaning of Physical Resources
23.9 Principles of Managing Material Resources
23.10 Management of School Finances
23.11 Major Characteristics or Qualities of the Head of the School for the Management of Human Resources and Material Resources

24. School Time-Table
24.1 Concept of School Time-table
24.2 Significance of the School Time-table: Spark Plug of the School
24.3 Types or Forms of a School Time-table
24.4 Principles of School Time-table Construction
24.5 Problems in the Construction of the Time-table
24.6 Tyranny of the School Time-table and Modem Protests: Flexibility of Time-table

25. Classroom Management: Role of the Teacher
25.1 Meaning and Concept of Classroom Management
25.2 Significance of Classroom Management
25.3 Importance of the Classroom as a Social Group
25.4 Four-Fold Process of Class-Room Management
25.5 Principles of Classroom Management
25.6 Influencing Factors of Classroom Management
25.7 Important Elements in the Classroom Management
25.8 Techniques of Classroom Management
25.9 Class Discipline: Code of Behaviour
25.10 Instructional Input
25.11 Instructional Input and Teaching Skills
25.12 Discipline (School Discipline and Class Discipline)
25.13 Manifold Roles of the Teacher
25.14 Characteristics and Qualities of an Effective Teacher
25.17 Summing up the Characteristics of an Effective Teacher
25.18 'A' to 'Z' of Effective Teacher and Effective Classroom Management and Instruction
25.19 Social Management and Classroom Management

26. Maintenance of School Records
26.1 Indispensability of School Records
26.2 Need of School Records
26.3 Need of School Records for the School Management, Classroom Teachers and Pupils
25.4 Maintenance and Essential Requisites of School Records
26.5 Mode of Keeping Records
26.6 Broad Classification or Type of School Records
26.7 Description of Some Important Records
26.8 Specimen of School Records

27. Organising School Library
27.1 Importance of the School Library: Library as the Hub and Centre of School Life
27.2 Important Functions of a School Library
27.3 State of School Libraries in India
27.4 Main Characteristics of a Well Managed School Library
27.5 Encouraging Students to Make the Best Use of School Library
27.6 Central or Class Library
27.7 Role of the Teachers in Encouraging Students to Use Library

28. Organisation of Co-Curricular Activities
28.1 Concept of Co-curricular Activities
28.2 Types of Co-curricular Activities
28.3 Importance of Co-Curricular Activities
28.4 Principles of Organising Co-curricular Activities
28.5 Role of a Teacher in Co-curricular Activities
28.6 Causes of Lack of Due Interest among the Students in the Co-curricular Programme
28.7 Causes of the Lack of Interest among Teachers in Organising Co-curricular Activities
28.8 Limitations of a Co-curricular Programme
27.9 Description of Various Co-curricular Activities

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