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Year: 2009



About the Book

Containerisation has marked a revolutionary change in the history of shipping technology during the last two and a half decades. The container traffic has been recording impressive growth particularly since 1992-93, with fast increasing use of containers for all types of cargo in international trade. The induction of container technology and introduction of multimodalism have made the development of a network ICDs and CFSs at important hinterland centres inevitable for providing various services and facilities to the exporters and importers.

This book is an outcome of the realisation of the great significance of containerisation in India's foreign trade. It contains an analysis of:

origin and growth of containerisation
multimodel transportation and logistics management in foreign trade
locational aspect and management of Dry Ports (ICDs/CFSs)
performance of ICDs/CFSs and future strategy for its expansion
adequacy of infrastructure for improvement in operational efficiency of sea ports
connectivity of ICDs/CFSs with sea ports
future scope for containerisation of cargo in foreign trade

This book will be useful to Exporters & Importers, Shipping Companies, Indian Port Trusts, Ministries of Railways and Commerce, World Bank, WTO, Entrepreneurs, Policy Makers and Academicians/ Researchers, besides the Students of M.B.A. (International Business).

About Author

Dr. Namita Pandey (b.1976) was awarded Ph.D. degree by the University of Lucknow. Until 2008, she was Assistant Professor and teaching B.B.A. & M.B.A. classes at I.M.S., Noida. Currently, she is working with Teklink International in Melbourne, Australia. She has participated in many seminars and conferences and has contributed research papers for publication in national and international Journal of repute. Her area of specialization includes Supply-Chain Management, International Business and Overseas Marketing Research.

Prof. Nar Singh (b.1952) is teaching Applied Economics at the University of Lucknow. He is an awardee of Fellowships twice for Post-Doctoral Research at Budapest (Karl-Marx) University of Economics, Hungary, and Institute of Social Sciences (MSH), Paris. Eight students have been awarded Ph.D. degrees and nine students are pursuing for their researches under his guidance. His area of specialization includes, International Trade, Industrial Economics, Regional Planning, Mathematical Economics and Application of Quantitative Techniques. To his credit, he has got twenty research papers published in various national and international Journals of repute, besides his book 'Sharing of Productivity Gains in Indian Industry'.


List of Tables
List of Figure

I : Introduction
Containerisation: Origin and Significance / 1; Containerisation at Indian Ports / 3

II : Pattern of India's Foreign Trade
First to Third Plan Periods / 13; Composition of India's Foreign Trade / 19; Direction of India's Foreign Trade / 27; New Dimensions in Foreign Trade Policy, 2004-09 / 33; Conclusion / 37

III : Multimodal Transportation and Foreign Trade
Intermodal systems / 40; Intermodal Coordination / 41; Multimodal Transportation and Trade / 42; Multimodal Transportation Act 1993 / 44; Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act, 1993 / 46; Multimodal Transport Document / 47; Containerisation and Multimodalism / 50; Benefits of Intermodal Operation / 51

IV : Logistics Management and Foreign Trade
Logistics and Trading Process / 52; Trading Logistics: Concept and Objectives / 53; Logistics Sub-Systems / 56; Importance and Objectives of Logistics / 57; Element of Trading Logistics System / 60; World Scene in Logistics / 71; Strategic Logistics Management / 71

V : Containerisation in Retrospect
History of Containers / 74; Container's Attributes / 83; Certification and Standardisation / 92; International Customs and Conventions Affecting Containers / 100; Constraint of Containerisation / 114

VI : Container Operations: Some Aspects
Packing Principles Relating to Cargoes in Containers / 121; Container Cargo Handling Systems / 134; The Terminal as a System / 146; Warehousing of Containers / 149; Infrastructural Requirements for Carriage of Containers By Rail / 153; Infrastructure Requirement for Carriage of Containers by Road / 161; Container Corporation of India / 165

VII : Sea Ports and Foreign Trade
Types of Ports / 181; Functioning of a Sea Port / 182; Port Performance Indicators / 185; Ports in Modern Context / 185; Ports in Indian Context / 189; Human Resource Management at Major Ports / 196; Container Performance of Major Ports / 207; Present Problems of Indian Ports / 213; Foreign Direct Investment at Indian Ports / 217; Measures Taken by Government / 219

VIII : Air Ports in Indian Context
Air Cargo in India / 223; Procedures and Practices of Cargo Handling at Air Ports / 232; Electronic Data Interface in Air Cargo / 234

IX : Dry Ports With Major Thrust on Indian Experiences
Introduction to Dry Ports / 236; Definition of Dry Port / 237; Dry Ports and Sea Ports / 238; Function of ICDs/CFSs / 240; Benefits of ICDs/CFSs / 240; Location of Dry Port / 241; Facilities at a Dry Port / 241; Port Linkages / 242; Equipping a Dry Port / 243; Container Freight Station / 246; Distinction between ICD and CFS / 247; Procedures and Practices / 251; Various Services Offered at ICDs and CFSs / 258; Present Position of Dry Ports in India / 262

X : Impact of Containerisation on India's Foreign Trade
Containerisation Contributing to India's Foreign Trade: A Regression Analysis / 284; Impact on Utilisation of Export Potential / 290; Removal of Infrastructural and Congestion Problems at Sea Ports / 294; Container Logistics and Competitiveness / 295; Container Logistics and Export Services' Revenues / 297; Qualities of the Country's Logistic Facilities and the Country's Logistic Costs / 298; Other Benefits / 299

XI : Conclusions and Recommendations

Appendix I: Year/Plan-wise India's Foreign Trade / 317; Appendix-II: Container (in TEUs) Handled at ICDs and Sea Ports During Plan Periods / 319; Appendix III: World's Top 30 Container Ports in 2004 / 320; Appendix-IV: INCO Terms (International Commercial Terms) / 321; Appendix V: Number of Containers Handled at ICDs (in TEUs) During 2001-2005 / 324; Appendix-VI: CONCOR Terminals at a Glance / 328; Appendix VII: Distance of Major Sea Ports from ICDs in India / 332

Bibliography    34

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