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Year: 2016



ISBN: 9788175418608(HB)

Price: $54

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ISBN: 9788175418615(PB)

Price: $16

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About the Book

This book offers an introduction to the study of childhood, child development and adolescence. It aims to develop understanding about children of different age groups from diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. The main focus of this book is to enable students, teachers, teacher-educators, student-teachers and parents to arrive at an understanding of how different socio-political realities construct different childhoods, within children’s lived contexts: family, schools, neighbourhoods and community. The book deals with the concepts of childhood to adolescence and also defines the numerous aspects of child growth and development. It describes the principles, facts and details of personality development and discusses the related theories as constructed in different social-economic and cultural settings. The book may be useful for all having interest in the subject.

About Author

Dr. Noushad Husain is Principal and Associate Professor in Maulana Azad National Urdu University, College of Teacher Education (CTE), Asansol (West Bengal). He is the author/editor of numerous books and books chapters, articles and professional papers on different aspects of Higher Education. He has worked extensively in the field of educational technology. He is actively involved in theory and practice of teaching and learning with new media. He has participated and presented numerous papers at several and international seminars and conferences. He is actively engaged in research, training, consultancy and social service programmes.


Preface                                                                                                                      vii

1      Introduction to Psychology

What is Psychology?; Definitions of Psychology; Nature of Psychology; Scope of Psychology; Branches/Fields of Psychology; Basic Psychological Process

2      Educational Psychology and its Methods

Meaning of Educational Psychology; Definitions of Educational Psychology; Nature of Educational Psychology; Scope of Educational Psychology; Characteristics of Educational Psychology; Methods of Educational Psychology; Introspection Method; Observation Method; Interview Method; Experimental Method; Case Study Method; Clinical Method

3      Child Growth and Development

Meaning of Growth and Development; Correlation between Growth and Development; Comparison between Growth and Development; Principles of Growth and Development; Meaning of Child Growth; Meaning of Child Development; Factors Influencing Growth and Development; The Developmental Process; Stages of Growth and Development

4      Heredity and Environment

What is Heredity?; What is Environment?; Causes of Individual Differences; Controversy of Nature (Heredity) versus Nurture (Environment)

5      Individual Differences

Definition of Individual Differences; Types/Areas of Individual Differences; Role of Heredity in Generating Individual Differences; Role of Environment as Determinant of individual differences; Relative Importance of Heredity and Environment as determines of Individual Difference; Effective Ways for Teachers/Educators Dealing with Individual Difference; ; Individual Differences and Education 

6      Development of Adolescent

Importance of Adolescence Period; Needs and Problems of Adolescence; Problems of Adolescents with Special Reference to Indian Context; Developmental Characteristics of Adolescence; Psychological Characteristics of Adolescence; Developmental Theories; Important Points for Adolescents; How can Teachers and Parents Support Healthy Adolescent Development?

7      Motor Development

Definitions of Motor Development; Patterns of Crawling and Creeping; Sections of Motor Development; Why Should We Know about Motor Development?; Stages of Motor Development; Motor Development and Education

8      Intellectual or Cognitive Development

Meaning of Cognitive Development; Definitions of Cognitive Development; Characteristics of Cognitive Development; Cognitive Developmental Occur During Adolescence; What Encourages Healthy Cognitive Development During Adolescence?; Theories of Cognitive Development; Educational Implications of Different Stages of Cognitive Development; Educational Implications of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Theory; Bruner’s Theory of Intellectual Development; Vygotsky’s View of Knowledge Construction; Educational Implications of Intellectual Development

9      Language Development

Meaning and Significance of Language Development; Definitions of Language Development; System of Language Rules or Levels of Linguistic Structure; Stages of Language Acquisition; Sequence of Language Development; Stages of Language Development; Chomsky’s Theory of Language Development; The Role of Teacher Regarding Language Development

10   Moral and Psychosocial Development

Meaning of Moral Development; Definition of Moral Development; Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development; Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

11   Emotional Development

Definitions of Emotions; Definition of Instinct; Classification of Instinct; Components of Emotions; Characteristics of Emotions; Meaning of Emotional Development; Characteristics of Emotions at Various Stages of Development; Factors Influencing Emotional Development; The Characteristics of an Emotionally Matured Person; Educational Implications of Instincts; Educational Implications of Emotion; Role of the School and the Teacher in Emotional Development of the Child

12   Social Development

Meaning of Social Development; Concept of Social Development; Characteristics of Social Development; Aspects of Social Development; Stages of Social Development; Factors Related to Social Development of Adolescents; Factors Influencing Social Development of the Children; Key Points for Supporting Children’s Social Development; Role of the Teacher in the Social Development of the Child; Educational Implications of Social Development

13   Parenting Styles or Child Rearing Practices

Meaning of Parenting or Child Rearing; Definitions of Child Rearing; Meaning of Parenting Practice or Child Rearing Practices; Meaning of Parenting or Child Rearing Skills; Parenting or Child Rearing Styles; Types of Parenting Styles or Child Rearing Practices; Factors that Affect Parenting Decisions; Role of Teachers, Parents and Family in Child Rearing

14   Methods to Understand Children’s and Adolescent’s Behaviour

Reflective Journal; Portfolio; Interview Method; Naturalistic Observation; Narrative

15   Learning

Meaning of Learning; Definitions of Learning; Nature of Learning; Principles of Learning; Characteristics of Learning; Laws of Learning; Learning Curve; Factors that May Affect the Learning Process; Factors Associated with Learner that Affects Learning; Factors Associated with the Types of Learning Experiences that Affects Learning; Factors Associated with the Men and Material Resources that Affects Learning

16   Behaviourism Perspective of Learning

Key Ideas of Behaviourism; Behaviourist Assumptions about Learning; Key Principles of Behaviourism; Behavioural Approaches to Learning; Strengths of Behaviourism; Weaknesses of Behaviourism; Implications of Behaviourism; Practical Implications of Behaviourism

17   Cognitivism Perspective of Learning

Key Ideas of Cognitivism; Key Principles of Cognitivism; Practical Implications of Cognitivism for Educators; Strengths of Cognitivism; Weaknesses of Cognitivism; Application of Cognitivism; Educational Implications of Cognitivism

18   Constructivism Perspective of Learning

What is Constructivism?; Defining Constructivism; Key Ideas of Constructivism; Assumptions of Constructivism; Guiding Principles of Constructivism; How Constructivism Impacts Learning; Components of Constructivism; Faces or Schools of Constructivism; Educational Implications of Constructivism; Strengths of Constructivism; Weaknesses of Constructivism; Application of Constructivism; Implications of Constructivism

19   Humanism Perspective of Learning

Assumptions of Humanistic Psychologists; Principles of Humanistic Education; Humanistic Approach to Learning; Carl Rogers, Freedom to Learn (1994); Roger’s Principles of Learning; Self Actualization; Carl Rogers’s Theory of Personality; Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory or Person Centered Therapy (PCT) or Person Centered Approach

20   Theories of Learning

Thorndike’s Trial-and-Error Learning Theory; Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Learning Theory; What is Operant Conditioning?; Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory of Learning; Robert Gagne’s Theory of Learning; Hull’s Systematic Behaviour Learning Theory or Drive Reduction Learning Theory; Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory of Learning; Tolman’s Sign Theory of Learning; Kohler’s Insight Learning Theory; Gestalt Laws of Learning; Guthrie’s Contiguity Theory or One Trial Learning; Hebb’s Neurophysiological Theory of Learning; Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory or Observational; Learning Theory or Learning by Imitation Situated Learning Theory 

21   Transfer of Learning

Introduction; Meaning of Transfer of Learning; Definitions of Transfer of Learning; Types of Transfer of Learning; Theories of Transfer of Learning; Educational Implications of Transfer of Learning

22   Motivation

Meaning of Motivation; Defining Motivation; Definitions of Motivation; Types of Motives; Categories of Motivation; Strategies to Motivate Students; Classroom Implications of Theory of Motivation; Theories of Motivation

23   Bruner’s Discovery Learning

Meaning of Discovery Learning; Main Idea of the Discovery Learning Theory; Methods of Discovery Learning; Advantages of Discovery Learning; Disadvantages of Discovery Learning; Planning a Discovery Learning Experience; Teacher’s Role in Discovery Learning; Student’s Role in Discovery Learning; Educational Implications of Bruner’s Discovery Learning

24   Children in Marginalized Environment

Meaning of Marginalization; Types of Marginalization; The Factors or Contributors to Marginalization; The Consequences or Impacts of Marginalization; Role of Teacher in a Marginalized Learning Environment Setting

25   Deprivation and Deprived Children

Meaning and Nature of Deprivation; Types of Deprivation; Meaning of Deprived Children; Childhood in the Context of Poverty; Suggestion to Minimize the Effects of Poverty on Childhood; Children in the Context of Globalization; Children Living in Slum Areas; Measures for Improvement in Deprived Students; Socially Deprived Girls; Children Separated from Parents

26   Thinking

Concept of Thinking; Definitions of Thinking; Characteristics of Thinking; Attributes of Good Thinkers; Types of Thinking; The Creative Process; Tools or Instruments of Thinking

27   Concept Formation

Meaning of Concepts; Defining Concept; Definitions of Concepts; Nature of Concept; Types of Concepts; Types of Concepts According to Bruner; Concept Formation; Process of Concept Formation; Levels of Concept Formation; Piaget’s Cognitive Development; Cognitive Structure; Bruner’s Constructivist Theory; Bruner’s Model of Concept Learning; Implications of Bruner’s Model of Concept Learning

28   Decision Making

Meaning of Decision Making; Definitions of Decision Making; Modern Techniques for Making Programmed Decisions; Importance of Decision Making; Limitations of Decision Making

29   Intelligence

Meaning of Intelligence; Definitions of Intelligence; Nature of Intelligence; Characteristics of Intelligence; Theories of Intelligence; Factor Theories of Intelligence; Cognitive Theories of Intelligence; The Concept of CA, MA, BA and IQ; Distribution of Intelligence; Measurement of Intelligence; Verbal and Non-verbal Intelligence Tests; Uses of Intelligence Tests

30   Personality

What is Personality?; Definitions of Personality; Features and Characteristics of Personality; Factors of Personality; Types of Personality; Factors Influencing or Affecting Personality; Assessment of Personality of an Individual; Role of Teacher in Personality Development of Children

31   Creativity

Meaning of Creativity; Definitions of Creativity; Nature of Creativity; Characteristics of Creativity; Dimensions or Elements of Creativity; Stages of Creative Thinking; Creativity as a Product; Creativity as a Process; Characteristics of a Creative Person; Techniques for Fostering Creativity; Role of Teacher in Fostering Student’s Creativity; Educational Implications of Creativity; Measurement of Creativity; Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking 

32   Impact of Media on Growing Children and Adolescents

Meaning of Media; Meaning Media or Mass-Media; Classification of Mass Media; Importance of Mass Media; Impact of Mass Media on Growing Children and Adolescents; Deconstruction of Significant Events that Media Highlights and Creates 

33   Mental Health and Mental Hygiene

Meaning of Mental Health; Mental Ill-Health; Mental Illness; Difference between Mental Healthy and Mental Unhealthy; Definitions of Mental Health; Characteristics of Mental Health; Importance of Mental Health; Indicators/Signs of Poor Mental Health; Factors Affecting Mental Health; Meaning of Mental Hygiene; Definitions of Mental Hygiene; Objectives of Mental Hygiene; Functions of Mental Hygiene; Principles of Mental Hygiene; Mental Hygiene Strategies for Good Mental Health; Limitations of Mental Hygiene

34   Life Skills and ARSH Skills

What is a Skill?; What are Life Skills?; Understanding Life Skills; Key Life Skills; Who Needs Life Skills?; How Life Skills are Imparted; Methods for Life Skills; Life Skills Education; Benefits of Life Skills Education; Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH); ARSH Skills; Education in ARSH Skills; Types of ARSH Skills; Skills for Teachers Related to ARSH; Skills for Students

35   Stress and Its Management

Meaning of Stress; Definitions of Stress; Categories of Stress; Types of Stress; Symptoms of Stress; Causes of Stress; Effects of Stress; Coping with Stress; Stress Management; The 4 As Technique for Reducing or Coping with Stress

36   Games and Group Dynamics

Meaning of Game; Definitions of Game; Meaning of Group Dynamics; Educational Implications of Group Dynamics; Meaning of Conflict; Five Styles of Conflict Resolution; Meaning of Negotiation; Levels of Negotiation; Benefits of Teaching Conflict Resolution to Young Children; Steps in Resolving Conflicts through Negotiation; Conflict Resolution through Negotiation

37   Play and Child Development

Meaning of Play; Definitions of Play; Types of Plays; Characteristics of Play; Play and Children; Play andChild Development; Functions of Play in Child’s Growth and Development 



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