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Year: 2024 impression


ISBN: 9789386262424(HB)

Price: $64

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ISBN: 9889386262431(PB)

Price: $20

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About the Book

All our efforts in an educational system are focussed on carrying out the process of teaching and learning in a proper way for the needed development and progress of the learners. This book is intended to acquaint the teachers with the essentials of such learning and teaching. Beginning with throwing light on the concept of learning and teaching, it discusses all essentials about the development of the learners; approaches to learning including constructivism perspective; role of teacher in a teaching-learning context; and the intelligence, overall personality development and adjustment of the learners resulted through the process of teaching-learning. With the vast coverage of the subject, the book may prove useful to pre-service and in-service teachers and researchers in universities and teacher education institutes.

About Author

Prof. S.K. Mangal (Ph.D. Education), former Principal, and Head of the Department of Postgraduate Studies, C.R. College of Education, Rohtak, Haryana, is a distinguished teacher, researcher and administrator who has devised several psychological tools including the Emotional Intelligence Inventory.

Professor Mangal is a prolific writer and has number of outstanding books in Education to his credit. His books are very popular among students and researchers. He has also published extensively in reputed journals.

Prof. Shubhra Mangal (Ph.D. Education) is the Principal, and Head of the Department of Postgraduate Studies, C.R.S. College of Education, Noida.

She has devised an Emotional Intelligence Inventory for the measurement of Emotional Intelligence of School Teachers. She has written a number of books in the field of Education, Psychology and Teacher Education. The areas of her research interest are Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Education.



1.   Learning and Teaching — Nature and Relationship

Concept of Teaching

–   Meaning and Definitions of the Term Teaching

–   Nature and Characteristics of Teaching

–   Relation of Teaching with other Similar or Related Concepts

–   Analytical Concept of Teaching

–   Variables of Teaching

–   Functions of Teaching Variables

Concept of Learning

–   Meaning and Definitions of the Term Learning

–   Nature and Characteristics of Learning

Relationship between Teaching and Learning

2.   Nature (Heredity) and Nurture (Environment)

What is Heredity or Nature?

The Twins and Heredity

What is Environment or Nurture?

Relative Role and Importance of Nature and Nurture in Development

3.   Maturation: Concept and Educational Implications

Concept of Maturation

–   Meaning of the Term Maturation

–   Effect of Maturation on Growth and Development

Educational Implications of Maturation

4.   Development: Concept, Influencing Factors and Relationship with Learning


Human Development: Meaning and Concept

Factors Influencing Development

Relationship between Development and Learning

5.   Dimensions of Individual Development


Physical Development

Intellectual or Mental Development

Emotional Development

Social Development

Language Development

Moral or Character Development

Interrelationship among different dimensions of development

6.   Theories of Development


Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Erickson’s Theory of Psycho-Social Development

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

7.   Developmental Tasks and their Implications

Meaning of the Term Developmental Tasks

Identifying and Naming of the Development Tasks

Sources Contributing towards the Upsurge of Developmental Tasks

Critical Ages and Developmental Tasks

Purposes and Goals of Developmental Tasks

Role of Cultural and Social Patterns in Developmental Tasks

Developmental Tasks of the Various Stages of Development

–   Infancy (upto two years)

–   Early Childhood (from 3 to 5 years)

–   Later Childhood (from 6 to 12 years)

–   Adolescence (from 13 to 18 years)

Implication of Developmental Tasks

8.   Behaviourism Perspective

What is Behaviourism?

Historical Evolution and Development of Behaviourism

The Main Characteristics and Features of Behaviourism

Evaluation of the Behaviouristic Perspective

–   Criticism

–   Merits and Contribution of Behaviourism to Education

Behaviourism and Behaviouristic Learning

–   Thorndike’s Trial and Error or S.R. Theory of Learning

–   Watson’s and Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning

–   Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

–   Guthrie’s Contiguous Conditioning

9.   Cognitivism Perspective and Learning

What is Cognitivism?

Historical Evolution and Development of Cognitivism

Main Characteristics and Features of Cognitivism

Cognitivism and Theories of Learning

–   Gestalt Theory of Insightful Learning

–   Information Processing View Point

10.   Humanism Perspective and Learning

What is Humanism and Humanistic Perspective in Education?

Basic Characteristics and Features of Humanism and Humanistic Learning

Rogers’ Theory of Experiential Learning

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

11.   Constructivism Perspective and Constructivist Learning


Historical Evolution of Constructivism and its Types

Jean Piaget’s Individual Constructivism

Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism

Learning in Constructivist perspective or Constructivist Learning

–   Constructivist Learning Defined

Assumptions and Characteristics of Constructivist Learning

Educational Implications of the Theory of Constructivist Learning

12.   Learning as Construction of Knowledge


Learning as Construction of Knowledge vs. Learning as Transmission  and Reception of Knowledge

Processes Facilitating ‘Construction of Knowledge’

–   Experiential Learning and Reflection

–   Social Mediation

–   Cognitive Negotiability

–   Situated Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship

–   Meta Cognition

13.   Cognition and Learning

Meaning of Cognition

Role of Cognition Learning

Socio-cultural Factors Affecting Cognition and Learning

–   Role of Home and Family

–   Role of School

–   Role of Society or Community

–   Role of Mass Media

–   Role of Different Cultures

–   Role of Religion

14.   Role of Teacher in a Teaching-learning Context


Role of Teacher as Transmitter of Knowledge

Role of Teacher as a Model

Role of Teacher as Facilitator

Role of Teacher as Negotiator

Role of Teacher as a Co-learner

15.   Intelligence: Concept, Theories and Measurement


Concept of Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

–   Unitary Theory

–   Anarchic Theory or Multi Factor Theory

–   Spearman’s Two Factor Theory

–   Thurstone’s Group Factor Theory

–   Guilford’s Theory Involving a Model of Intellect

–   Cattell and Horn’s Theory of Intelligence

–   Sternberg’s Information Processing Theory of Intelligence

–   Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

Measurement of Intelligence

–   Individual Verbal Tests

–   Individual Performance Tests

–   The Group Vertical Intelligence Tests

–   The Group Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests

–   Individual v/s Group Tests

Can Intelligence be Measured like a Piece of Cloth?

Concept of Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient

Classification of I.Q.

The Constancy of I.Q.

Uses and Limitations of Intelligence Tests

16.   Motivation

Motivation — Nature and Meaning

The Motivational Cycle

Types of Motivation

Need of Motivation for the Learners and Teachers

The Concept of Needs, Drives and Incentives

Strategies or Techniques for Motivating the Students

Teacher’s role in Motivating, Strengthening and Sustaining Motivation Learners

17.   Personality — Meaning, Nature and Theories

The Meaning and Nature of Personality

Theories of Personality

–   Type Approach

–   Trait Approach

–   Trait cum Type Approach

–   Psycho-analytic Approach

–   Humanistic Approach

–   Learning Approach

18.   Adjustment — Meaning, Nature and Methods

Meaning and Definitions of Adjustment

Nature of Adjustment—In the Context of Teaching and Learning

Adjustment as Achievement or Process

Areas or Spheres of Adjustment

–   Personal Adjustment

–   Social Adjustment

–   Occupational Adjustment

Characteristics of a Well Adjusted Person

Methods of Adjustment

–   Direct Methods

–   Indirect Methods

References and Suggested Readings

Study Questions

Additional Info.

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