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English Translation of Taziki: Pre-Ancient, Ancient and Medieval History

Year: 2005



ISBN: 8175412461

Price: $160

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About the Book

This work is the English version, published for the first time, of the second edition of the two-volume magnum opus of well-known Soviet Tajik orientalist B.G. Gafurov, brought out in 1989 from Dushanbe in Russian language. The first Russian edition which was published in 1972 from Moscow was followed by Tajik and Persian (in Arabic script) editions as also in the Polish language translated from Russian.

Though titled Tazhiki, Gafurov's work is, in fact, a well-researched comprehensive historical account of the march of the peoples (not just the Tajiks) living on the compact territory of Central Asia from times pre-historic to the threshold of the modern age. Creatively developing upon the foundations laid by outstanding Soviet scholars - V.V. Bartold, A.A.Semenov and M.S. Andreev of the 20s and A.Iu.Yakubovskii of the 30s of the previous century, Gafurov's work makes use of a plethora of historical sources of the most varied character to work out on the basis of his own research on Tajik history, as also the researches by a host of Soviet scholars in the post-war period, an inter-disciplinary framework for understanding the history and culture of the closely linked Central Asian peoples bound by age old civilisational ties with India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and Russia.

Some of the problems analysed in the book are level of development of culture and economy of Central Asia, ties with the neighbouring countries, the Aryan problem, cultural synthesis between Central Asian, Iranian, Indian and Hellenic cultures, chronology and culture of the Kushans, besides history and culture of Tokharistan and Sogd. The Marxist approach of the author is reflected in his emphasis on issues related to economic development and social transformation and the popular struggles against foreign invaders and indigenous oppressors and tyrants.

Rs 2500, US$ 80
(2 Vols.)

About Author

Babajan Gafurovich Gafurov (1908-1977) - eminent scholar statesman, leading Soviet Tajik scholar, member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Tajik SSR and several foreign scientific and cultural societies. Gafurov began his career as a journalist in Tajikistan after completing his higher education in Moscow. He became Propaganda and Agitation Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan in 1941 and was elevated to the position of First Secretary in 1946. He continued to hold this office until 1956 when he was appointed Director of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow following the 20th Party Congress of the CPSU. His tenure as Director of this prestigious Soviet Institute lasted till his death in Dushanbe in 1977.

Inspite of his pre-occupation with higher politics, Gafurov continued his active interest in historical research. In 1941 he was awarded a Ph.D. degree by the Moscow Institute of History on the topic "History of the Ismaili Sect from the beginning of the 19th century to the First World War". Gafurov got his D.Sc. degree on his work "A Short History of the Tajik People" in 1947. Gafurov was a member of the board of editors for the five volume collective work "History of the Tajik People" published in 1963-1965. Gafurov was member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1952 to 1961 and an elected deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet from 1946 to 1970. He was decorated with the "Order of Lenin" four times. The Republic of Tajikistan posthumously awarded him the highest honour of "Hero of Tajikistan" in the post-Soviet period. A city in the Republic is named after him.


The Primitive Community System and its Decline on the Territory of Central Asia

The Primitive Communities in Central Asia

1 Paleolith Pre-Tribal Society
Emergence of Tribal Society - Monuments of Lower Paleolith - Monuments of the Middle Paleolith - Monuments of the Upper Paleolith - Characteristics of Paleolithic Society
2. Mesolith and Neolith Age
Mesolithic Monuments - Neolithic Monuments - Earliest Rock Paintings
3. The Bronze Age
Transition to the Patriarchal Tribe - Productive Forces - Historico-cultural Regions of Central Asia - Social System
4. Ethnic Composition of Population of Central Asia in the Bronze Epoch - The Aryan Problem
Indo-Iranian Community - The Aryans - The Ways of Settlement of Indo-Iranian Tribes and the Central Asian Archaeological Complexes

Eastern Iranian Tribes of Central Asia at the Dawn of Early Class Society (Ninth to Mid-Sixth Century B.C.)

1.Archaeological Materials of Early Iron Age
Metallurgy of Iron - Settlements
2.Central Asian Society In Early Iron Age
"Avesta" as a Historical Source - Avesta on Central Asian Society - Problem of Formation of Ancient States - Zoroastrianism

The Ancestors of the Tajiks in the Epoch of Development of Slave - Owning Relations
Central Asia in the State of Achaemenid

1. Political History of Central Asia in 6th - Beginning of 5th Century B.C.
Emergence of the Achaemenid State - The conquests of Kir II in Central Asia - Kir and Tomiris. Rout of Achaemenid Troops - Uprisings against Achaemenids during the reign of Darius I
2. Central Asian Society in V-IV Centuries B.C.
Central Asia as Part of the Achaemenid State - The Socio-economic System, Culture and Religion in Sogd, Khwarezm and Bactria in VI-V Centuries B.C.
3.Central Asia and Iran during the Achaemenid Period

Peoples of Central Asia in the Struggle against Graeco-Macedonian Conquerors

1. Campaign of Alexander of Macedonia in the East
The Rise of Macedonia - Destruction of the Achaemenid State - Struggle at the Approaches of Central Asia
2. Struggle of the Central Asian Peoples against the Graeco-Macedonian Forces
Military Forces and the Art of War of the Central Asian Peoples - Military Operations in Central Asian Inter-River Region - The Uprising of 329-327 B.C. - Collapse of the Empire of Alexander of Macedonia and Results of Macedonian Conquest

Graeco-Bactria and Parthia in III-II Centuries B.C.
1.Central Asia in the Seleucid State
2 The Graeco-Bactrian and Parthian State
Early History of Parthia and Graeco-Bactria - The Struggle against Seleucid Expansion - Blossoming of the Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom
3. The Internal System, Economy and Culture of Central Asia in Third - Second Centuries B.C.
The Graeco - Bactrian Kingdom - The Parthian Kingdom - The Other Regions of Central Asia

Central Asia in the Kushan Period

1.Parthia, Graeco-Bactria and the Nomads. Early History of Yueh-Chih
The Nomads and Parthia - The Problem of Origin of Yüeh-Chih - Assault on Graeco-Bactria
2. Central Asia in II-I Centuries B.C.
Bactria and Sogd - The Ancient Fargana state of Dawan - Northern Regions and Peoples - Parthia - The Victory Over Rome
3.The Kushan Kingdom
The Early Period of Kushan Kingdom - Problem of Kushan Chronology - Territorial Annexations - The Coinage Reform of Kadfiz II - Kanishka and Prosperity of the Kushan Kingdom - The Fall of the Kushan Kingdom. The Kushans and The Sasanids
4. Central Asian Cities and Settlements in Kushan Times - Northern Bactria
Sogd, Fargana, Chach and Khwarezm
5. Economy of Central Asia in the Kushan Period
Agriculture, Irrigation - Construction Works and Handicrafts - Foreign and Domestic Trade
6. Culture and Religion of Kushan Central Asia
Old Relics of Written Language - Religious Beliefs - Art

Socio-Economic System of Ancient Central Asia

1. Historiography of the Problem of Slave-owning Socio-Economic Structure of Ancient Central Asia
2. Contemporary View About the Socio-Economic System of Ancient Central Asia
Social and Property Differentiation - Structure of Central Asian Society at the End of I Millennium B.C. - Early I Millennium B.C.

Emergence of Feudal Relations in Central Asia

Tribes and Peoples of Central Asia in IV-VI Centuries A.D.

1. Political History
The Sasanid Kingdom - Kidarits - Hionits - Ephtalites
2. Problems of Ethnic History
Class Struggle - The Ephtalite Society - The Mazdak Movement

Peoples of Central Asia in VI-Beginning of VIII Century
1. The Main Events of Political History
Class Struggle - the Turk Kaganate and the Expansion of its Power over Central Asia - Turks and Ephtalites - Turk-Sasanid Conflict Economy and Politics - Mutual Relations of Turk Kaganate with Local Rulers Central Asian-Turk Synthesis - The Abrui Movement
2. Tokharistan in VI and Beginning of VIII Century
Data in the sources on the condition in Tokharistan in 6th and beginning of 8th century - The Political History - Irrigation-Agriculture - Handicrafts and Trade - Construction Work. Architecture - Painting - Sculpture, Wood Carving and other Arts - Religion
3. Sogd in VI-VII Centuries
General Account - Suan-tszan and Khoi Chao on Sogd - Political History - Irrigation Agriculture - Handicrafts and Trade - The Colonial Activities of the Sogdians - The Discovery of the Castle on Mug Hill and Excavations of Ancient Panjikent - Samarkand, Varaksha and other Urban Settlements - Construction Works - Paintings - Sculpture, Music and Dance - Sogdian Script and Literature - Religious Beliefs
4. Other Regions of Central Asia
Ustrushan - Fargana
5. Socio-Economic System : The Establishment of Feudal Relations



Central Asia in the Period of Development and Consolidation of the Feudal System

The Peoples of Central Asia in the Arab Caliphate3
1. The Fall of The Sasanid State
Arabs on the Eve of Islam - The Emergence of Islam - Destruction of Sasanid State
2. The Conquest of Maverannahr (The First Period)
The Political Parcelling up of Maverannahr in the Middle of VII Century - The Arrival of Arab forces on the Frontiers of Central Asia - The first raids on Maverannahr - The Struggle of the Sogdians, Tokharistan and other Peoples of Central Asia against the Conquerors - Defence of Samarkand - The Coalition of Sogd, Chach, Fargana and the Turks
3. The Conquest of Maverannahr by the Arabs (Second Period)
Condition of Peoples of Central Asia - The Struggle of Sogdians, Farganians and Turks in 720-722 A.D. - Khuttalyan in Struggle with Conquerors
4. Consequences of the Incorporation of Central Asia in the Arab Caliphate
5. Role of Central Asian Peoples in the Struggle between the Omeiyads and the Abbasids
Opposition Groups in the Caliphate - The Movement of Abu Muslim - The Uprising of Sumbad Mag and the Movement of Mukanna

Completion of the Process of Formation of the Tajik People and Its Statehood: The States of Takhirids, Saffarids and Samanids (9th-10th Centuries)

1. Political History of 9th-10th Centuries
The Strengthening of Local Feudal Aristocracy - The Takhirids (821-873 A.D.) - The Saffarids (873-903 A.D.) - Formation of the Samanid State - The State System and Organisation of the Ruling Apparatus - Feudal Internecine Wars and Weakening of the State of the Samanids - Karakhanid conquest
2. Economy, Material Culture and Socio-Economic Relations
Agriculture - Mining and Metallurgy - Production of Glass and Ceramics - Other Forms of Handicraft Production - Building and architecture - Trade and Money Circulation - Bukhara - The Capital of the Samanid State - The Institutions of Feudal Grants and Conditional land Ownership - Feudal rent, condition of the peasantry and the people's movements - The Completion of the Process of Formation of the Tajik People
3. Science and Literature in the IX-X Centuries
First Written Works in the Tajik Language (Dari, Farsi Dari) - Development of Fiction Literature - Science

The Tajik People 11th-Early 13th c. State of the Gaznavids, Karakhanids, Gaurids and the Khwarezm Shahs

1. Political History
Unsuccessful Struggle of Abu Ibrahim for Restoration of the Power of the Samanids - The Tajiks in the State of the Gaznavids - Seljuks and the Collapse of the State of the Gaznavids - The State of the Gurids - Seljukids and Nizam al-Mulk - The Ismailite Movement - Karakhanids - Karakhanids and Karakitais - Khwarezm and the State of the Seljukids - The Uprising of Sanjar - The Conquest of the State of the Karakhanids by Mohammed Khwarezm Shah
2. Economy and Socio-Economic Relations
Ikta and Conditional Land Ownership in the 11th-12th Centuries - Land Ownership and the Peasantry - The Cities of Central Asia in 11th-12th Centuries - The Crafts in the 11th-12th Centuries - Money Circulation
3. Culture in the 11th-13th Centuries
Construction, Architecture and Applied Crafts - Literature and Sciences in the 11th-12th and Beginning of the 13th Centuries - The Spread of Sufism and its Influence on Tajik-Persian Literature

Tajik People in the Chengezid State

1. The Mongol Conquest
Economy of Central Asia under the Mongols - The Invasion of Central Asia by the Hordes of Chengez Khan - The Heroic Defence of Khojent - Timur-Malik - Further Conquests of Chengez Khan in Central Asia - Economic Life after the Mongol Conquest - The Uprising of Mahmud Tarabi - The Internal Policy of Munke-kaan and the Merchant-ruler Masud-bek - Monetary Reform of Masud-bek; Partial Rehabilitation of Urban Life and Trade - Central Asia in the First Half of the 14th Century
2. Socio-Economic Relations in Central Asia Under the Mongols
The Categories of Landownership - Suirgal - The Category of Peasants The Question of Serfdom and Slavery - The Condition of Craftsmen
3. The Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia during the Mongol Period
Architecture, Applied Crafts and Art - Literature and Science in the 13th-middle of 14th Century

Tajik People in the State of Timur and the Timurids

1. Political History, Popular Movements
Timur and his First Steps Towards Power - The Movement of Sarbedars - The Seizure of Power by Timur in Maverrannahr and His Further Conquests - The Dynastic Struggle Among the Timurids - The Rule of Ulug Bek - The Assassination of Ulug Bek - The Feudal Strifes
2. The Economy, Socio-Economic Relations
The General Condition of the Economy and the Exploitation of the Peasantry - The Categories of Feudal Property in Land. "Suiurgal" in the 15th Century - Trade - City and Crafts
3. Culture
Construction and Architecture - Monumental Painting and Miniature - Science and Literature at the end of 14-15th Centuries

Tajik People During the Later Period of Feudalism in Central Asia

Life of Tajik People in the State of Sheibanids (16th Century)
1. Political History
Conquest of the State of Timurids, Internal Policy of Sheibani Khan - The Struggle between Sheibani Khan and Babur - Central Asia in the First Half of the 16th Century - Feudal Internecine Wars, Abdallah II and "Unification of Principalities"
2. Socio-Economic Relations
Landownership and Use - Crafts, Internal Trade and Money Circulation - External Trade, Diplomatic Relations
3. The Problem of Ethno-Genesis of the Uzbek People
4. Material and Spiritual Culture
Construction and Architecture - Tajik Fiction and Historical Literature in 16th Century

Tajik People in the State of Janids (17th-First Half of 18th Century)
1. Political History
Feudal Internecine Wars in 17th Century - Growing Feudal Break up: Internal Policy of Ubeidallah Khan
2. Socio-Economic Relations
State of Economy. Land Rent. Taxes in Cities - Concentration of Land-ownership in the Hands of the Feudals - Popular Movement - Crafts, Trade and Monetary Turn-over
3.Material and Spiritual Culture
Architecture and Art - The Tajik Fiction and Historical Chronicles in the 17th-beginning of 18th century




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