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Year: 2021 impression



ISBN: 9788175416741(HB)

Price: $90

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ISBN: 9788175416758(PB)

Price: $28

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About the Book

Each of us is inherently curious about the things around and explores them in one’s own way. Some are more inquisitive while others are less so. When such exploration is done in a scientific and systematic manner with specific objectives it becomes research. Apart from an analytical mind, a systematic researcher needs to have in-depth knowledge of the concepts and practical techniques of organising and conducting research. This book is an attempt to enable an intending researcher to acquire such conceptual knowledge and its applications in practice by himself. Various concepts and procedures about research have been explained in detail with examples and in a language which can be understood easily.The book is a combination of theory and its application in practical situations. Examples have been given keeping in focus social research. It will be useful for those who want to be researchers, those who want to have an expertise in social research, students and those who want to know how to apply theory in the practical situations.

About Author

Dr. Rashmi Agrawal is a Ph.D in Psychology from Lucknow University. She later specialized in Rehabilitation & Counselling from the University of California, USA. She has also done an International Course in Evaluation sponsored by The World Bank. Dr. Agrawal has long experience of research in the field of Education, Employment and other related areas. She has authored a number of books on topics of social relevance and number of papers presented in national and international conferences. At present she is working as Director in the Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, New Delhi. Banda Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Rao retired from Indian Statistical Service in 1995. He served in the Ministry of Labour, GoI, in various capacities, Central Institute for Research and Training in Employment Services as Director, and in Planning Commission as Dy. Advisor. He also worked with ILO on projects in Bangkok and Hanoi. He has presented/published papers and books on subjects like child labour, street children, empowerment of women, education etc. At present he is associated with a number of organisations as statistical advisor.


1.  Research: The Concept

  Science and Scientific Attitude
  What is Research ?
  Natural Science and Social Science Research
  Characteristics of Social Research
  Functions of Research
  Application of Social Research in Study of Social Phenomena
  Problems of Objectivity in Social Research

2.  Types of Research

  Basic Research
  Applied Research
  Historical Research
  Empirical Research
  Action Research
  Evaluation Research

3.  Research Process: An Overview

  Steps in Research Process

4.  Concept of Hypothesis

  The definition
  Hypothesis is not always Necessary
  Sources of hypothesis
  Characteristics of Good Hypothesis
  Utility of Formulating Hypothesis (Importance)
  Types of Hypothesis
  Role of Hypothesis in Social Research
  Hypothesis and Other Related Concepts

5.  Concept of Variables and Scales of Measurement

  Variables - Quantitative and Qualitative
  Theory of Causality 
  Variables - Dependent and Independent
  Extraneous Variables
  Variables - Measurement Scales
  Measurement of Variables - Concepts of Reliability and Validity
  Difference between Validity and Reliability

6.  Research Design: The Concept and Types

  Concept and Importance of Research Design
  Steps in Research Design
  Types of Research, Objectives and Research Designs
  Types of Research Approach and Types of Research Designs
  Retrospective and Prospective Designs
  Impact Assessment Research and Designs 
  Concept of Counterfactual

7.  Data Collection and Sources

  Basic Questions about Data Collection
  Data Sources
  Problems in use of Secondary Data
  Quantitative and Qualitative Data
  A Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Data
  Primary Source
  Techniques of Primary Data collection
  Process of Data Collection-Steps

8.  Techniques of Data Collection

  Case Study
  Field Observation
  Participatory Methods
  Focus Group Discussions
  Delphi Technique

9.  Tools of Data Collection

  Schedule and Questionnaire
  Example: Matching the Objectives with Questionnaire Items
  Ethics in Data Collection
  Pilot Study

10.  Sampling: Basic Concepts and Techniques

  Concept of Population/Universe
  Census and Sample
  Sampling and non-sampling Errors
  Issues to be Decided in a Sample Study
  Sampling Frame
  Sample Units And Notation
  Parameters and Their Estimation
  Bias, Consistency and Variance of Estimators
  Sampling Design
  Probability Sampling
  Non-Probability Sampling
  How many? - The Question of Sample Size
  Considerations in Determining Sample Size
  Interpenetrating Sub-samples

11.  Data Process and Use of Social Statistics

  Meaning of Social Statistics
  Importance and Functions
  Basics of Data Presentation and Data Processing
  Editing of Data
  How to Edit the Information
  Classification of Data
  Coding the Data
  Tabulation and Preparation of Master Tables
  Frequency Distributions
  Diagrammatic and Graphic Representation of Data
  Frequency and Probability Distributions
  Some important Theoretical Probability Distributions

12.  Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion

  Concept of Average
  Measures of Central Tendency
  Relative Advantages and limitations
  Measures of Dispersion

13.  Linear Regression and Correlation

  Correlation and Association
  Scatter Diagram
  The Concept of Correlation
  Correlation Coefficient
  Contingency Tables
  Concept of Regression
  Linear Regression (2 Variable Case)
  Non-linear Situations
  Multiple Regression
  Multiple Correlation
  Partial Correlation Coefficient

14.  Testing of Hypothesis and Statistical Analysis

  Testing of Hypothesis
  'z' Test
  't' Test
  Chi-square Test (?2 Test)

15.  Index Numbers and Time Series

  Types of Index Numbers
  Methods of Computing the Average Changes
  Some Index Numbers Series in India
  Construction of a Consumer Price Index
  Uses of Index Numbers
  Time Series
  Uses of Time Series Analysis
  Components of a Time Series
  Basic Time Series Models
  Methods of Time Series Analysis

16.  Analysis and Interpretation of Data

  Purpose of Data Analysis
  Statistical Software Packages
  Analysis of Qualitative Data
  Computer Software for Qualitative Data Analysis

17.  How to Write a Research Report and Research Abstract

  Objectives of Report Writing
  Types of Reports
  Format of the Report
  How to Evaluate the Report?
  Characteristics of a Good Report
  How to Write a Good Report?
  Use of Visuals
  Types of Visuals
  How to Write Research Abstract

18.  Preparation of Project Proposal

  What is a Project?
  Basic Features of a Project
  How to Choose a Project?
  Types of Projects
  Phases of a Project
  Formulation of a Project Proposal
  Difference between a Research Proposal and a Project Proposal

Further Reading

Additional Info.

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