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LEARNING AND TEACHING

LEARNING AND TEACHING

A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH

NOUSHAD HUSAIN

Year : 2021 impression

Bibliography :

xiv+384pp

ISBN : 9788175418578(HB), Price : $60.00 Add To Cart

ISBN : 9788175418585(PB), Price : $13.60Add To Cart

About the Book

All teaching is directed at learning and the learner is at the heart of teaching. Teachers should critically question the widespread belief that teaching is telling (informing/ demonstrating) and understand culturally responsive teaching approaches that support learning. The contemporary view of learning is defined as knowledge construction. Hence, teachers better understand how learning occurs, how learners construct knowledge, acquire skill and develop disciplined thinking processes and know how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning. Teachers should appreciate that each learner’s cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional and physical development influences learning and know how to make instructional decisions that build on learners’ strengths and needs.

This book is prepared to serve the educational purposes of students, teachers, teacher educators, student-teachers and parents for developing a better understanding about the different concepts related to learning and teaching. It offers a site for prospective teachers to reflect on and critique notions of learning and teaching that they have formed from their own experience and to move beyond them.

About Author

Dr. Noushad Husain is Principal and Associate Professor in Maulana Azad National Urdu University, College of Teacher Education (CTE), Asansol (West Bengal). He is the author/editor of numerous books and books chapters, articles and professional papers on different aspects of Higher Education. He has worked extensively in the field of educational technology. He is actively involved in theory and practice of teaching and learning with new media. He has participated and presented numerous papers at several national and international seminars and conferences. He is actively engaged in research, training, consultancy and social service programmes.


Contents

Preface                                                                                                                      vii

1      Understanding Learning

Meaning of Learning; Definitions of Learning; Nature of Learning; Principles of Learning; Characteristics of Learning; Laws of Learning; Learning Curve; Factors that May Affect the Learning Process; Factors Associated with Learner that Affects Learning; Factors Associated with the Types of Learning Experiences that Affect Learning; Factors Associated with the Men and Material Resources that Affect Learning

2      Behaviourist Approach to Learning

Key Ideas of Behaviourism; Behaviourist Assumptions about Learning; Key Principles of Behaviourism; Behavioural Approaches to Learning; Strengths of Behaviourism; Weaknesses of Behaviourism; Implications of Behaviourism; Practical Implications of Behaviourism; Major Learning Theories Related to Behaviourism 

3      Cognitivist Approach to Learning

Key Ideas of Cognitivism; Key Principles of Cognitivism; Strengths of Cognitivism; Weaknesses of Cognitivism; Application of Cognitivism; Educational Implications of Cognitivism; Major Learning Theories Related to Cognitivism

4      Constructivist Approach to Learning

What is Constructivism?; Defining Constructivism; Key Ideas of Constructivism; Assumptions of Constructivism; Guiding Principles of Constructivism; How Constructivism Impacts Learning; Components of Constructivism; Faces or Schools of Constructivism; Educational Implications of Constructivism; Strengths of Constructivism; Weaknesses of Constructivism; Application of Constructivism; Implications of Constructivism; Major Learning Theories Related to Constructivism

5      Child Growth and Development

Meaning of Growth and Development; Correlation between Growth and Development; Comparison between Growth and Development; Principles of Growth and Development; Meaning of Child Growth; Growth plates; Growth plates; Meaning of Child Development; Factors Influencing Growth and Development; The Developmental Process; Stages of Growth and Development; Developmental Tasks from Birth to Old Age

6      Individual Differences

Definition of Individual Differences; Types/Areas of Individual Differences; Role of Heredity in Generating Individual Differences; Role of Environment as Determinant of individual differences; Relative Importance of Heredity and Environment as determines of Individual Difference; Effective Ways for Teachers/Educators Dealing with Individual Difference; Individual Differences and Education

7      Transfer of Learning

Meaning of Transfer of Learning; Definitions of Transfer of Learning; Types of Transfer of Learning; Theories of Transfer of Learning; Educational Implications of Transfer of Learning

8      Development of Adolescent

Importance of Adolescence Period; Needs and Problems of Adolescence; Problems of Adolescents with Special Reference to Indian Context; Developmental Characteristics of Adolescence; Psychological Characteristics of Adolescence; Developmental Theories; Important Points for Adolescents; How can Parents Support Healthy Adolescent Development?; Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development; Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development; Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development; Levels and Stages of Kohlberg’s Moral Development; Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory; Chomsky’s Theory of Language Development; The Role of Teacher Regarding Language Development; Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory

9      Constructivist Learning

Principles of Constructivist Learning; Advantages of Constructivist Learning; Principles of Constructivist Course Design; Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs); Constructivist Assumptions about Learning; Constructivist Learning Goals; Constructivist Conditions for Learning

10   Introduction to Reflection

Meaning of Reflection; The History of Reflection; Definition of Reflection; Dewey’s Criteria for Reflection; Schon’s Criteria for Reflection; Roger’s Criteria for Reflection; Reflection and Education; The Process of Reflection; Forms of Reflection; Benefits of Reflection; Reflective Practice Models (Models for Reflection); Kolb’s Learning Cycle (1984); The Four Stage Learning Cycle; Gibbs Reflective Cycle Model (1988); Reflecting on Students’ Work; Encouraging Reflection in Students 

11   Learning In and Out of School in Diverse Environments

Life-Long, Life-Wide and Life-Deep Learning; Meaning of Out-of-School Learning; Principles of In and Out of School Learning; Learning Theories Supporting Outdoor Classroom Learning; Foci and Outcomes of Outdoor Learning; Personal and Social Benefits of Purposeful Educational Activities in the Outdoor Classroom; The Range and Effectiveness of Approaches to Outdoor Education; Approaches to Learning outside the Classroom; Methods of Learning Outside the Classroom/School; Planning for Learning outside the Classroom; Preparation of Learning outside the Classroom

12   Understanding Teaching

Meaning of Teaching; Teaching as a Tri-polar Process; Definitions of Teaching; Objectives of Teaching; Nature of Teaching; Important Aspects of Teaching; Functions of Teaching; What is Effective Teaching?; Principles of Teaching; Teaching as a Complex Task; Maxims of Teaching; Difference between Teaching, Learning, Instruction, Training and Conditioning; Relationship between Teaching and Learning

13   Variables of Teaching

Meaning of Variables; Types of Variables; Functions ofVariables

14   Phases of Teaching

Pre-Active Phase of Teaching; Interactive Phase of Teaching; Post-Active or Evaluation Phase of Teaching

15   Levels of Teaching

Memory Level of Teaching; Memory Level of Teaching; Understanding Level of Teaching; Reflective Level of Teaching

16   Models of Teaching

Meaning of Models of Teaching; Definitions of Models of Teaching; Peculiarities of Models of Teaching; Main Characteristics of Models of Teaching; Merits of Models of Teaching; Limitations of Models of Teaching; Functions of Models of Teaching; Types of Teaching Models; Classification of Models of Teaching; Components of a Teaching Model; Advance Organizer Model; Components of Advance Organizer Model; Concept Attainment Model; Inquiry Training Model or Richard Suchman Inquiry Model 

17   Teaching Skills

Meaning of Teaching Skills; Nature of Teaching Skill; Components of Teaching Skills; Why Do We Need to Have Skills in Teaching; Types of Teaching Skills; Core Teaching Skills; Classification of Teaching Skills; Core Teaching Skills and their Components

18   Micro-Teaching

Origin and Development of Micro-Teaching; Meaning of Micro-Teaching; Definitions of Micro-Teaching; Objectives of Micro-Teaching; Nature of Micro-Teaching; Main Propositions/Assumptions of Micro-Teaching; Advantages of Micro-Teaching; Uses of Micro-Teaching; Disadvantages of Micro-Teaching; Phases of Micro-Teaching; Steps of Micro-Teaching; Micro-Teaching Cycle; Indian Model of Microteaching; Comparison between Micro-Teaching and Traditional Teaching

19   Practising Teaching Skills through Micro Teaching

Introducing a Lesson or Set Induction Skill; Components of Introducing a Lesson or Set Induction Skill; Micro-Lesson Plan; Questioning Skill; Stimulus Variation Skill; Components of Stimulus Variation Skill; Black Board Skill; Demonstration Skill; Reinforcement Skill; Probing Questioning Skill; Components of Probing Questioning Skill; Micro-Lesson Plan-2; Skill of Closure; Explaining Skill; Integration of Teaching Skills (Link Practice)

20   Traditional and Constructivist Lesson Planning

Types of Lesson Plans; Lesson Planning; Definition of Lesson Planning; Characteristics of Good Lesson Plan; Needs of Lesson Planning; Importance of Lesson Planning; Criteria of a Good Lesson Plan; Traditional Approaches to Lesson Planning; Difference between the Traditional (Behaviourist) and Constructivist Lesson Planning

21   Identification and Formulation of Teaching or InstructionalObjectives

Uses of Educational Objectives; Difference between Goal, Aims and Objectives; Meaning and Importance of Teaching Objectives; Types of Instructional Objectives; Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives; The Cognitive Dimension Process; Writing Objectives in Behavioural Terms

22   Modification of Teacher Behaviour and Analysis of ClassroomInteraction

Teaching or Teacher Behaviour; Modification of the Teaching or Teacher Behaviour; Techniques for the Modification of Teaching or Teacher Behaviour; Techniques to Observe the Classroom Interaction; Flinders’ Interaction Analysis Categories System (FIACS); Objectives of Flinders’ Interaction Analysis Category System; Assumptions of Flinders’ Interaction Analysis Category System; Meaning of Flinders’ Interaction Analysis Categories System (FIACS); Description of Flinders’ Interaction Analysis Categories System (FIACS); Procedure of Observation/Encoding Teaching Procedure; Rules for Observation/Rules for Recording or Decoding; Construction of Interaction Matrix; Interpreting the Interaction Matrix

23   Team Teaching

Meaning of Team Teaching; Characteristic of Team Teaching; Objectives of Team Teaching; Types of Team Teaching; Principles of Team Teaching; Procedure of Organizing the Team Teaching; Advantages of Team Teaching; Limitations of Team Teaching 

24   Classroom Communication

Meaning of Communication; Definitions of Communication; Characteristics of Communication; Components or Elements of Communication; Principles of Communication; Types of Communication; Modes of Communication; Communication Process/Cycle; Factors Affecting Communication; Barriers of Communication; Achieving Effectiveness in the Classroom Communication

25   Measurement and Evaluation in Education

Meaning of Measurement; Definitions of Measurement; Educational Measurement; Meaning of Evaluation; Definitions of Evaluation; Characteristics of Evaluation; Need, Scope and Importance of Evaluation; Functions of Evaluation; Measurement; Difference between Measurement, Evaluation, Assessment and Test; Distinction between Measurement and Evaluation; Types of Evaluation; Difference between Formative Evaluation and Summative Evaluation; Objective Based and Competency Based Evaluation; Scholastic and Co-scholastic Evaluation; Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Evaluation; Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE); Grading; Achievement Test

26   Pedagogy and Pedagogical Analysis

What is Pedagogy?; Definitions of Pedagogy; What is Pedagogical Analysis?; Defining Pedagogical Analysis; Operations Involved in the task of Pedagogical Analysis; Components of Pedagogical Analysis; Steps of Pedagogical Analysis; Advantages of Pedagogic Analysis; Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Meaning of Critical Pedagogy; Definitions of Critical Pedagogy; Banking System of Education; Problem Posing Education (PPE)/Dialogical Method; Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

27   Teacher’s Diary

Meaning of Teacher’s Diary; Need of Teacher’s Diary; Importance of Teacher’s Diary; Advantages of Teacher’s Diary; Reflective Teaching Diary

28   Constructivist Teaching

Constructivist Pedagogical Theory; Principles of Constructivism; Benefits of Constructivism; Meaning of Constructivist Teaching; Common Tenets of Constructivist Pedagogical Theory; Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching; Constructivism in the Classroom; Comparison between Traditional Classroom and Constructivist Classroom; Benefits of Constructivist Classroom; Constructivist Teaching Practices; Components of Constructivist Practice; Vygotsky’s Constructivist Approach; Role of a Constructivist Teacher; Role of the Constructivist Student; Suggestions for Teaching with the Constructivist Learning Theory

29   Multicultural Education

What is Multiculturalism?; Characteristics of Multicultural Education; Approaches of Multicultural Education; Approaches of Multicultural Teaching; Strategies of Multicultural Instruction; Multicultural Classroom; Culturally Responsive Teaching

30   Teaching as a Profession and Mission

Meaning of Profession; Definition of a Profession; Is Teaching a Profession?; Duties of a Teacher; Responsibilities of a Teacher; Role of the Constructivist Teacher; Teacher Roles

31   Learning Style vs Teaching Style

Meaning of Learning Style; Definitions of Learning Style; Types of Learning Styles; Teaching Style; Definitions of Teaching Style; Typologies of Teaching Style; Types of Teaching Styles; Matching Teachers’ Teaching Style with Learners’ Learning Style; Practical Strategies to Match Teaching Style with Learning Style; How a Teacher can Modify His Teaching Style according to Learners’ Learning Style

32   Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Concept of ICT; Meaning of ICT; Definitions of ICT; Characteristics of ICT; Scope of ICT in Education; Advantages of ICT in Education; Examples of ICT-based Activities; Computers and the Internet Use for Teaching and Learning; Limitations ofICT

33   E-Learning and M-Learning

Electronic Learning or e-Learning; Meaning of E-Learning; Definitions of E-Learning; Features of E-Learning; Benefits of e-Learning; Disadvantages of E-Learning ; Mobile Learning or M-Learning; Meaning of Mobile Learning; Definitions of Mobile Learning; Challenges of Mobile Learning; Value of Mobile Learning; Benefits of Mobile Learning; Limitations of Mobile Learning

References

 

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