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Year: 2016



ISBN: 9788175418738(HB)

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About the Book

This book introduces the sociological and philosophical perspectives on education with a view to initiate inquiries and discussions on significant facets, themes and questions regarding education in India, that is, how education is both the means and product of social change, how multiculturalism and the concept of composite culture have impacted educational policies and how the movements of human rights education and children’s rights have reshaped the content and processes of education. It suggests practical measures for fulfilling the objectives of secularism, socialism and democracy as envisaged in Constitution of India. The role of different types of formal, informal and non-formal agencies of education in this regard is highlighted. Suitable quotes of great thinkers on education enrich the subject matter. The subject matter of the book is explained in a simple and easy language. 

About Author

J.C. Aggarwal was a former Deputy Director of Education and Executive Director of the Delhi Bureau of Textbooks, Delhi Administration, Delhi. He worked at the grassroots level as a Post-graduate teacher, principal, plan evaluation officer and educational supervisor and administrator. He also taught in a Post-graduateTeacherTrainingCollege. He travelled widely and wrote extensively on education.

Dr. Noushad Husain is Principal and Associate Professor in Maulana Azad National Urdu University, College of Teacher Education, Asansol (West Bengal). He is the author/editor of numerous books and books chapters, articles and professional papers on different aspects of Higher Education. He has worked extensively in the field of educational technology. He is actively involved in theory and practice of teaching and learning with new media. He is keenly engaged in research, training, consultancy and social service programmes.


Preface                                                                                                                       iii

1      Meaning, Nature and Scope of Education

Significance of Education; Meaning of Education; Wider and Narrow Meaning of Education; What Education is Not; Nature of Education; Scope of Education; Functions of Education; Main Dimensions/Elements of the Process of Education; Meaning of Formal, Non-formal and Informal Education (Forms or Types of Education); Important Definitions of Education; Best Definition of Education; Four Pillars of Education: Education for the Twenty-first Century 

2      Aims of Education

Why Aims of Education? or Significance of Aims of Education; Factors Affecting Aims of Education; General Aims of Education; Individual Aim and Social Aim of Education; Character Development Aim of Education and Vocational Aim of Education; Aim of Education in India through the Ages; Immediate and Ultimate Aims of Education; Principles and General Objectives of Education 

3      Informal, Formal and Non-Formal Agencies of Education and Social Change

Need for Different Types of Agencies of Education; Broad Classifications of Agencies of Education; No Watertight Division of Agencies of Education; Broad Comparison Between Formal and Non-Formal Agencies of Education; Mass Media as Agencies of Education; Radio as Agency of Education; Television as an Educational Medium; Peer Group and Education 

4      Role of the Family, School, Community, NGOs and State in Education and Social Change

Role of the Family in Education; School As an Agency of Education; Functions of the School in Behavioural Terms: Historical Letter of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th President of the US (1861-1863), to the Headmaster of the School in which his son was studying; Community as an Agency of Education; Interaction Between the Community and the School; Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Education; Policy Statements on the Role of NGOs; Role of the State in Education 

5      Meaning, Nature, Functions and Scope of Philosophy:Philosophy and Education

Significance of philosophy; Meaning and Nature of Philosophy; Why do we need philosophy; Scope of Philosophy; Importance of Philosophy; Functions of Philosophy; Relationship between Philosophy and Education; Contribution of philosophy to Education 

6      Idealism

Meaning of Idealism; Chief Exponents of Idealism; Main Principles of Idealism; Idealism and Various Aspects of Education; Limitations and Weaknesses of Idealism in Education; Contribution of Idealism to Educational Theory and Practice; Summing up 

7      Naturalism

Meaning of Naturalism; Chief Characteristics of Naturalism; Prominent Naturalist Philosophers; / Naturalism and Its Various Dimensions in Education; Negative Education according to Rousseau — A Prominent naturalist; Limitations of Naturalism in Education; Contribution of Naturalism to Education 

8      Pragmatism

Meaning of Pragmatism; Fundamental Principles of Pragmatism; Broad Features of Pragmatism in Education; Limitations of Pragmatism; Contribution of Pragmatism to Education 

9      Humanism: Comparative Study of Idealism, Naturalism and Pragmatism

Meaning of Humanism; Principles of Humanism; Humanism and Modification of Human Nature; Humanism and Democracy; Educational Implications of Humanism; Humanism and Curriculum; Comparative Impact of Idealism, Naturalism and Pragmatism on Educational Theory and Practice 

10   MK Gandhi (1869-1948)

Brief Life Sketch; Gandhiji’s Educational Experiments; Gandhiji’s Publications on Education; Principal Features of Gandhiji’s Philosophy of life; Factors that Influenced Gandhiji’s Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Education; Gandhiji’s Views on Different Aspects of Education; Gandhiji as an Idealist, Naturalist and Pragmatic Educationist; Criticism of Gandhian Approach to Education; Contribution and Relevance of Gandhiji’s Views on Education in Modern Times 

11   Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)

Brief Life Sketch; Tagore’s Philosophy of Life; Educational Philosophy of Tagore; Tagore’s Views on Different Aspects of Education; An Ideal School; Educational Institutes started by Tagore; Visvabharati (World University); Contribution of Tagore to Education 

12   Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902)

Brief Life Sketch and Work of Swami Vivekananda; Principal Features of Swami Vivekananda’s Philosophy; Swami Vivekananda’s Philosophy of Education; Swami Vivekanand on Various Aspects of Education; Contribution of Swami Vivekananda to Education: Relevance of his views Today 

13   Jiddu Krishnamurthy (1895-1986)

Educational Philosophy of Jiddu Krishnamurthy; Aims of Education According to Jiddu Krishnamurthy; Shortcomings of the Prevailing System of Education; / Characteristics of Integral Learning; Methods of Teaching According to Krishnamurthy; Role of Teacher According to Jiddu Krishnamurthy; The Qualities of a True Teacher according to Jiddu Krishnamurthy; Jiddu Krishnamurthy’s Concept of an Ideal School; / Krishnamurthy’s Contribution to Education 

14   Gijubhai Badheka (1885-1939)

Life Sketch of Gijubhai Badheka; Metaphysics of Gijubhai’s Philosophy; Epistemology and Logic of GijuBhai’s Philosophy; Axilogy and Ethics of Gijubhai’s Philosophy; Real Education; Experimentation – Key to Change; Philosophical Base of Gijubhai; Educational Principles of Gijubhai Badheka (Essence of Bal Mandir); Environment of the Bal Mandir (Children’s School or Children’s Temple or Children’s World); Diwa Swapna; 1 Learning Method; Games; Teacher; Student; Teaching of Language and Other Subjects 

15   Dr Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Works by or About Dr Maria Montessori; Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori; Montessori Education; Montessori Method; High Quality Education; Multi-Age Grouping; Prepared Environment; Teachers’ Role; Sensitive Periods of Learning; Absorbent Mind; The Child; Montessori Classrooms; Montessori Infant, Toddler and Pre-School Programmes; Merits of Montessori Method; Limitations of Montessori Method 

16   Frobel (1782-1852)

Life Profile; Published Works of Frobel; Frobel’s Philosophy of Education; Educational Principles; Kindergarten; Frobel’s Influence on Modern Education; Limitations of Frobel’s Philosophy 

17   Meaning, Concept and Importance of Sociology

Meaning and Concept of Sociology; Definitions of Sociology; Nature of Sociology; Importance of Sociology; Relationship between Sociology and Education 

18   Socialisation and Education

Meaning of Socialisation; Definitions of Socialisation; Process of Socialisation; Stages in Socialisation; Importance and Objective of Socialisation; Main Characteristics of the Process of Socialisation; Agencies or Factors Leading to the Socialisation of Child; Factors Resisting Socialisation of the Child; Education and Socialisation; Difficult Task of Socialisation of the Child; Role of the School in the Socialisation of the Child: Important Programmes of Socialisation; Role of the Teacher in the Socialisation of the Child; Suggestion for Proper Socialisation of the Students 

19   Contemporary Society and Child Rearing Practices

Contemporary Society and Child Rearing Practices; Meaning of Child Rearing Practices; What is a Family?; Child Rearing Practices in Single-Parent Family; Child Rearing Practices in Working-Parents Family; Child Rearing Practices in Nuclear Family; Child Rearing Practices in Joint Family; Children Rearing in Orphanages; Type of Family and Quality of Parenting; Socialisation and Child Rearing 

20   Social Diversity and Socialisation: Caste, Class, Social Mobility, Literacy, Poverty, Region, Language

Meaning of Diversity; Meaning of Social Diversity; Meaning of Socialization; Social Diversity and Socialization; Social Diversity and Socialisation — Caste, Class, Social Mobility, Literacy, Poverty, Religion, Region, Language; Factors Responsible for the Variation in the Socialization Process 

21   Role of Education to Promote Inclusion in Schools and Society

What is Inclusion?; Why Inclusion?; Inclusion in Education; Inclusive Education; Definition of Inclusive Education; The Benefits of Inclusive Education; Common Practices in Inclusive Classrooms 

22   Education and Culture

Concept and Meaning of Culture; Meaning and Definitions of Culture; Kinds of Culture; Functions of Culture; Types of Culture; Education and Culture; Impact of Culture on Education; Influence of Education on Culture; Education and Racial Prejudices and Antagonism; Human Culture as a Whole; Function of School; Inter-cultural Understanding; Education of Culture and for Culture; Flux in the Traditional Culture; Realisation of Common Culture by Human Beings; Meaning of Cultural Differences; Cultural Differences and Its Influence on Education 

23   Composite Culture, Multiculturalism and Education

Composite Culture; Multiculturalism 

24   Role of Education in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage of India

Rich Cultural Heritage of India; Meaning of Cultural Heritage; Chief Characteristics of Indian Cultural Heritage; Composite Cultural Heritage of India; Cultural Heritage and Education 

25   Social Change: Nature, Process, Causes and Effects

Meaning of Social Change; Nature and Characteristics of Social Change; Factors of Social Change; Process of Social Change; Causes/Factors of Social Change; Effects of Social Changes; Teacher as an Agent of Social Change 

26   Education as a Means and Product of Social Change

Education as a Means of Social Change; Broad Areas of Social Change and transformation through Education; Functions of Education in Social Change; Equality of Opportunity in Education and Social Change; Agencies of Education and Social Change; Limitations of Education in Bringing About Changes; Teacher as an Agent of Social Change; Education as a Product of Social Change; Interdependent Role of Education and Social Change; Factors which Influence Social Change in India; Social Awareness; How to Develop Social Awareness 

27   Human Rights and Education

Meaning of Human Rights; Need of Human Rights; Characteristics of Human Rights; Importance of Human Rights; Categories of Human Rights; Meaning of Human Rights Education; Need to Ensure Human Rights Education; The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948); UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)- 1989; National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) 

28   Value Education

Meaning and Concept of Values; Definitions of Values; Meaning of Value Education; Objectives of Value Education; Types of Values; Need for Value Education; Importance of Value Education; Sources of Value Education; Role of the Teacher in Development of Moral and Social Values; Inculcation of Values through Curricular Activities; Inculcation of Values through Co-curricular Activities and Community Services 

29   Education for Peace

Meaning of Education for Peace; Aims of Education for Peace; Key Pedagogical Principles of Peace Education; Importance of Education for Peace; / Values and Attitudes of Education for Peace; Education for Peace across the Curriculum 

Suggested Practicum 



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