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Year: 2023


PP xii+224

ISBN: 9789391978143(HB)

Price: $60

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ISBN: 97891978136(PB)

Price: $18

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About the Book

Increasing complexities in the lives and lifestyles of humanity have led to growing importance of guidance and counselling in all walks of life; particularly so in the field of educational and career choices, where the options for learning and employment have been ever-expanding. Personal -social problems with new dimensions are also coming up that require early identification and counselling for developing a healthy society.

The book not only explains various theories, processes and techniques relating to guidance and counselling issues but also provides ample examples, samples and emphasis on practical approach, which is suitable for self- learning and understanding. It also covers a wide spectrum of topics keeping the modern developments in the areas of availability of information, impacts of technological advances and other phenomena in focus. The book discusses the emerging trends and the changing role of career counsellor in the field.

Teachers, teacher-educators, pre-service teachers, parents and counselling professionals may find the book useful.

About Author

Rashmi Agrawal, Doctorate in Psychology, from Lucknow University,  did a post graduate diploma in Guidance and Counselling from NCERT, New Delhi and later specialised in rehabilitation and counselling from the University of California, USA.

Dr. Agrawal is a professional counsellor and has long experience of working as Guidance Counsellor in various schools of Delhi and a psychologist in the Aptitude Testing Centre attached to Delhi University. Later she held various other positions in Government of India and retired as Director from NILERD (Earlier IAMR), NITI Aayog.

Being interested on social issues she has taken up various assignments at national and international level and authored several books including Street Children; Gender Issues; Educational Technology; Research Methods and so on. Her vast professional experience is reflected in this book.



Preface/ v

List of Illustrations/ viii

1. National Education Policy 2020 and Role of Guidance and Counselling

Introduction/1; Indicative Features/2; National Education Policy 2020 and Guidance/3; Concept of Guidance/3; Need for Guidance/4; Objectives of Guidance/7; Principles of Guidance/8; Scope of Guidance/8

2. Foundations of Guidance/ 10

Sociological Foundation /10; Economic Foundation/11; Psychological Bases of Guidance/13; (d) Philosophical Bases of Guidance/14

3. Guidance at Various Levels of Education/ 15

Guidance at Foundational Level/15; Guidance at Preparatory and Middle Level /15; Guidance at Secondary Level/16

4. Types of Guidance/ 20

Educational Guidance/20; Vocational Guidance/24

5. Personal and Social Guidance/ 29

Health Guidance/31; Social and Emotional Guidance/31; Recreational Guidance/31; Ethical Guidance/32; Guidance and Utilization of Human Resources/32

6. Essential Guidance Services/ 34

Orientation Services/34; Individual Inventory Information Services/35; Pupil Information Inventory (A Sample)/40; Educational and Occupational Guidance Services/43; Group Guidance Services/43; Counselling Services/43; Support Services/44; Placement Services/44; Follow-up Services/45; Evaluation Services/45

7. Individual Guidance and Counselling/ 47

Objectives/48; Features of Counselling/48; Types of Counselling/49; Counselling and Psychotherapy – Two Different Concepts/61; Specific Skills Required in Counselling/65; Importance of Interview in Counselling/67; Process of Interviews in Counselling/68; Case Approach of Guidance /69

8. Group Guidance Programme/ 74

What is a Group? /74; Type of Groups/74; Formation of a Group for Guidance/75; What is Group Guidance?/75; Objectives of Group Guidance/76; Advantages of Group Guidance/76; Planning a Group Guidance Programme/79; Scope of Group Guidance Programme/80

9. Identifying Problems and Role of Guidance Personnel/ 81

Types of Problems of Students/81; Role of Guidance Personnel/85; Role and Functions of a Guidance Worker /87; Specific Functions of Guidance Counsellor in Personal Guidance/90; Characteristics of a Guidance Counsellor/91; Role of Career Master/93; Role of Psychologist/93; Role of Other Guidance Programme Personnel/93; School Resources/94; Community Resources of Guidance/96; Pupil Personnel Work/97

10. Techniques of Group Guidance/ 100

Group Discussions/100; Career Guidance Exhibitions/101; Class Talks/103; Career Conference/108; Field Visits/109; Guidance through Co-Curricular Activities/110; Role Play/113; Importance of Group Guidance in School/114

11. Importance of Self-Concept in Education and Role of Guidance/ 115

Meaning and Purpose of Self-Concept/115; Self-concept Theories/116; Development of Self-concept/117; Role of Guidance in Developing Healthy Self-concept/118

12. Guidance for Encouraging Creativity among Students/ 119

Introduction/119; Characteristics of Creativity/119; Developing Creativity among Children/120; Dos and Donts /121; /121; Role of Guidance in Developing Creativity/122; Guidance and Adjustment for Well-Being/122

13. Mental Health and Guidance of Children with Special Needs/ 125

Reasons for Academic Deficiency/125; Role of Guidance/126; Guidance and Mental Health/127; Definition—Mental Health/127; Types of Mental Disorders/127; Principles of Maintaining Mental Health/128; Taking Care of Children for Good Mental Health/129; Role of Guidance for Sound Mental Health/129; Guidance For Children With Special Needs/130

14. Types of Children with Special Needs/ 132

Children with Learning Disabilities /132; Mentally Retarded Children /133; Gifted Children/134; First-generation Learners /135; Children with Different Physical Abilities /135; Some Major Problems of Differently-abled/137; Identifying Children with Special Needs/138; Role of Guidance Worker/139

15. Appraisal of Students for Guidance: Psychological Tests/ 140

Psychological Tests/140; Objectives of Using Psychological Tests in a Guidance Programme/140; Classification of Tests/140; Characteristics of a Good Test/141; Standardisation of a Test/143; Statistical Concepts/145; Uses of Psychological Tests/146

16. Intelligence, Aptitude and Achievement Assessment/ 148

Intelligence Tests/148; Theories of Intelligence/148; Measurement of Intelligence/149; Emotional Intelligence/152; Aptitude Tests/154; Interests Tests/159; Achievement Tests/160

17. Personality Assessment/ 162

Theories of Personality/162; How to Measure Personality /165; How to Use Personality Tests in Guidance/169; Administration of Tests/169

18. Assessing Students without Using Tests/ 171

Self-Reporting Methods/171; Observational Method/173; Sociometric/176

19. Information Needs and Maintenance of Guidance Records/ 179

Records Needed/179; Principles in Developing a Guidance Record System/181; Kinds of Information Needed for Guidance/181; How to Collect Information/187

20. Organising Guidance Programme: Career Resource Centre/ 190

Financial Budget for Guidance/191; Features of a Good Guidance Programme/192; An Action Plan/195; Some Suggested Activities/196; Time Scheduling/198; Evaluation of Guidance Programme/198; Method of Collecting Information for Evaluation/200; Evaluation Technique/201; Some Success Indicators/201; Who should do the Evaluation?/202

21. Use of ICT in Guidance and Counselling/ 203

Introduction/203; Technology-driven Applications/204; Technology for Testing/207; Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Guidance and Counselling/207; Can Robots Deliver Counselling?/209

22. Emerging Trends in Counselling/ 210

Can Robots Deliver Counselling?/209; Contemporary Issues Impacting Demand for Counselling/210; Changing Profile of a Counsellor/215

23. Guidance for Entrepreneurship—Self-Employment/ 217

Importance of Self-Employment/217; Opportunities of Self-Employment in various sectors:/217; Traits Needed for Entrepreneurship/218; Barriers in promotion of self-employment/219; Role of Guidance Person in dealing with Barriers/219; Steps in Self- Employment Promotion:/219; Emerging Areas for self-employment: (indicative list)/221; Government Initiatives/222

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